Four Ways of Knowing. 1. Methods of Tenacity: Superstition. - Truth is true because one believes it even in front of contradicting evidence. 2. Method of Authority: Religion - Truth is true because an authority says so . 3. Method of Intuition: Philosophy
Four Ways of Knowing
1. Methods of Tenacity: Superstition.
- Truth is true because one believes it even in front of contradicting evidence.
2. Method of Authority: Religion
-Truth is true because an authority says so.
3. Method of Intuition: Philosophy
-Truth is true because it is logical. It derives from reasoning but does not bear empirical support.
- Discover new phenomena and relationships among phenomena that are missed by others. Qualitative research plays important role here.
e.g., A counselling psychologist wants to know what things make an effective counsellor.
- Develop new theories or use existing theories to account for the observations.
e.g., Dollard and Dobb (1939) theorized that frustration leads to aggression from the observation that a child strikes out when deprived of a toy.
- Validating and replicating existing research and theory is an important part of science. Using different samples, populations, research methods.
1. MEASUREMENT (PSYCHOMETRICS)
2. RESEARCH DESIGN
3. DATA ANALYSIS (STATISTICS)
1.Identification of a research problem.(Why)
Consult the literature for a solution. (Find out why)
Formulation of testable hypotheses on the basis of existing theory and research. (Here is a solution)
- Objectives and significance of study
- Literature review
- Research questions and hypotheses; Ind. and Dep. variables
4. Design a study to minimize extraneous factors that affect the same phenomenon or relationship you hypothesized. (A plan to test the solution)
5. Data collection. When the behaviors are exp manipulated or observed, the outcome become data. (carry out the plan)
sample, design (exp., quasi., non), procedures, validity threats
Measurements, reliability and validity
6. Data analysis. Data are summarized in such a way that the summary bears on the research questions and hypotheses. (report it)
7. Interpretation of data, adding to the existing body of knowledge. (Why? This is why.)
Various statistical and data analytical techniques and procedures
-Theory & explanation, limitations and future directions
1.Identify broad areas that are closely related to your interests and professional goals and write them down.
2.Then choose among the areas that relate to your future career, an area or a research topic that is feasible.
3.Collaborate with other people; join on-going projects.
4.Read text books where rather comprehensive topics in a field are summarized, and problems and future research needs are identified; journal article for the state of art of the field and authors recommendations; review articles for both.
5.Test a theory.
6.Replication. Replicate major milestone study. Replicate studies using different population, samples, methods.
7.Observations. Observe carefully the existing practices in your area of interest.
8.Develop research ideas from advanced courses you take.
9.Get ideas from newspaper and popular magazines.
1.A critical review of a literature
2.A review of literature relevant to a research proposal