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REDUCING CARBON DIOXIDE in COLORADO. AN ECOSYSTEM APPROACH . Lakshman Guruswamy, Ph.D Director Energy Environment Security Initiative (EESI) Nicholas Doman Professor of International Environmental Law University of Colorado at Boulder. CDPHE CO 2 REDUCTION PROJECTS.

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REDUCING CARBON DIOXIDE in COLORADO

AN ECOSYSTEM APPROACH

Lakshman Guruswamy, Ph.D

Director Energy Environment Security Initiative (EESI)

Nicholas Doman Professor of International Environmental Law

University of Colorado at Boulder


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CDPHE CO2 REDUCTION PROJECTS

EMISSIONS TRADING (UPSTREAM)

GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION &(DOWNSTREAM)

TERRESTRIAL SEQUESTRATION (DOWNSTREAM


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U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by Fuel, 1960-2030

(quadrillion Btu)

History

Projections

Liquid Fuels & Other Petroleum

Coal

Natural Gas

Nuclear

Renewables

Annual Energy Outlook 2007


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U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1980-2030

(million metric tons)

8,114 in 2030

History

Projections

7,119 in 2020

6,365 in 2010

7,950 in 2030

6,944 in 2020

6,214 in 2010

Carbon Dioxide Emission Intensity, 1980-2030

(metric tons per million 2000 dollars of GDP)

488 in 2010

406 in 2020

351 in 2030

486 in 2010

407 in 2020

353 in 2030

Annual Energy Outlook 2006 and 2007


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BARRY COMMONERS LAWS

  • Everything is Connected to Everything Else. There is one ecosphere for all living organisms and what affects one, affects all.

  • 2. Everything Must Go Somewhere. There is no "waste" in nature and there is no “away” to which things can be thrown.

  • 3. Nature Knows Best. Humankind has fashioned technology to improve upon nature, but such change in a natural system is, says Commoner, “likely to be detrimental to that system.”

  • 4. There Is No Such Thing as a Free Lunch. In nature, both sides of the equation must balance, for every gain there is a cost, and all debts are eventually paid.


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LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

  • thermodynamics studies the behavior of energy flow in natural systems

  • The first law of thermodynamics is often called the Law of Conservation of Energy

    energy can be transferred from one system to another in many forms. However, it can not be created nor destroyed. Thus, the total amount of energy available in the Universe is constant.


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MASS OR MATERIALS BALANCE

  • Energy from carbon can be transferred from Geosphere to Ecosphere and Atmosphere but cannot be destroyed

  • Materials Balance is an Accounting of material entering and leaving a system

  • Provides insights for regulating the carbon balance so as not to overload the Atmosphere



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Solar Radiation

(Teff ~ 6000K

mainly UV, optical and IR)

Earth’s Radiation(Teff ~ 300K mainly IR)

Energy & Material Flows in the Economy

Needs & Wants

high-entropy

Energy

Services

Low- Entropy

Energy

Sink for:

Wastes

&

Emissions

Products

Materials

Production

Anthroposphere

Ecosphere/Environment

  • All materials that enter the economic system will eventually leave it

  • Large amounts of low-entropy energy are needed to drive the economic system

  • All economic activity is essentially dissipative of both energy and materials


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HOURGLASS DIAGRAMS ENTROPY

HUMAN ENVIRONMENT


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Overview

  • Look Beyond methods of waste treatment and disposal.

  • Reduce waste throughout the total material cycle.

    • 1. Make changes within each stage: design and efficiency.

    • 2. Make changes between the stages: loops

    • 3. Make changes beyond the stages: rethinking

  • Opportunity: Help Colorado become world leader in smart design, use and reuse of products and effective use and reuse of natural resources.


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  • Broad “stages” of industrial activities:

  • Extraction of materials: mining, oil drilling, agriculture, forestry, fishery…

  • Processing of primary materials: cement and metal production, oil refining, food and wood processing…

  • Primary fabricating: tube and wire, plastics, paper construction…

  • Manufacturing: motors, cars, plastic and paper cups…

  • Use of materials and products by public

  • Recycling or disposal of used materials


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  • “Classes of environmental concerns” regarding the potential impacts of each class of activities:

  • ¨Human health: carcinogenic, respiratory, eye/ear, esthetic…

  • ¨Ecosystems: biodiversity, animals, fish, plants…

  • ¨Materials/energy resources: ore and fossil fuel reserves, forests…

  • ¨Solid residues: municipal or industrial solid wastes

  • ¨Liquid emissions: inorganic and organic contaminants of fresh and ocean waters

  • ¨Gas emissions: inorganic and organic gases and particulate matter emitted to the atmosphere


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Biomimicry potential impacts of each class of activities:


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ENERGY ENVIRONMENT ECOSYSTEMS potential impacts of each class of activities:


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TRACKING POWER PLANT WASTE STREAMS potential impacts of each class of activities:

  • Steam to:

    • Bioplant

      • Yeast to Pig Farmers

      • Fermentation Sludge to Other Farmers

  • Waste Heat:

    • Re-cycled via Municipality of Kalundborg

    • To Fish Farm which sends Sludge to Local Farmers

  • Volatile Ashes: to Oil Refinery

  • Steam: to Paper Factory

  • Gypsum: to Plasterboard Factory

  • Sludge: to Road Construction


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    Tracking Refinery Waste Streams potential impacts of each class of activities:

    • Gas:

      • Plaster Board Plant

      • Electricity Plant

    • Sulfur:

      • Sulfuric Acid Plant


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    ENERGY ENVIRONMENT ECOSYSTEMS potential impacts of each class of activities:


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    How much impact can carbon sequestration have on greenhouse gases?

    It has been estimated that 20 percent or more of targeted CO2 emission reductions could be met by agriculture soil carbon sequestration.


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    Farm gases?


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    Smart Farm gases?

    Moderate Cost

    Potentially

    Large Supply

    Pros

    Makes Use

    Of Waste

    Low Net CO2

    Potential to

    Restore

    Degraded Land

    Facility Can Be

    Placed On Unused

    Farm Land


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    Possible Problems gases?

    • Nonrenewable is not sustainably harvested

    • Potential for high environmental impact if not properly done

    • The process can take a long time

      Source: Miller, Living in the Environment, Thompson 2005


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    Current Efforts gases?

    • John Deere participates with NREL, DOE, and AFUP to develop a heavy-duty natural gas engine.

    • The engines had increased HP and MPG.

     Rural China uses over 500,000 biogas digesters.

    Burning the methane from these digesters yield more energy than directly burning the material.

     300 wells drilled in U.S. landfills provide millions of people with energy.

     1/4 of the electricity and 1/10 of the heating for the BMW plant in Spartanburg, S.C. comes from landfill methane.

    Sources: On Road Development of John Deere 6081 Natural Gas Engine, NREL 2001; Miller, Living in the Environment, Thompson 2005


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    1. Coal-fired plant owned by Goodland Energy Resources gases?

    2. Ethanol plant by E. Caruso

    3. Biodiesel plant by ReNewable Energy Resources

    Cogen Electricity

    Co gen waste (steam) to make Ethanol

    Ethanol waste sludge for Biodiesel

    GOODLAND KANSAS EXAMPLE


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    FUTURE US EMISSIONS WITH CAP &TRADE (CT) gases?

    • 2007 EIA Analysis of Sen. Bingaman’s suggested amendments of EPAct 2005

    • Projected 44% increase by 2030

    • Projected 21% increase with CT, Energy Efficiency, Renewables & Nuclear

    • Contrast with 6% below 1990 levels required by Kyoto


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    EESI REPORT ON EMISSIONS TRADING gases?

    • Offset Projects for Renewable Energy & Production Methods (to include Extraction, Processing)

    • Efficiency Projects Through Rate base Changes ( to include Generation, Use, Recycling & Waste Disposal)

    • This could be a start for an approach based on Industrial Ecology.


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    COLORADO CHALLENGE gases?

    • DEPLOY WASTE MANAGEMENT SKILLS & POLLUTION CONTROL EXPERTISE OF CDPHE

    • CREATE BROADER FRAMEWORK OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY & MATERIALS BALANCE

    • REDUCE RELIANCE ON FOSSIL FUEL BY RECYCLING, ENERGY EFFICIENCY, CONSERVATION & RENEWABLES

    • CUT DOWN CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS


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