Papulosquamous diseases
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Papulosquamous diseases. Psoriasis . Psoriasis is a noncontagious skin disorder that most commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis . Causes .

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Psoriasis is a noncontagious skin disorder that most commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis


Causes
Causes commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

  • Lesions of psoriasis are caused by an increase in the turnover rate of dermal cells from the normal 23 days to 3-5 days in affected areas.

  • Patients with psoriasis have a genetic predisposition for the disease


Causes1
Causes commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

Autoimmune function:

  • Significant evidence is accumulating that psoriasis is an autoimmune disease.

  • Lesions of psoriasis are associated with increased activity of T cells in underlying skin.

  • Some of the newer drugs used to treat severe psoriasis directly modify the function of lymphocytes


History
History commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

  • Worsening of a long-term erythematous scaly area

  • Sudden onset of many small areas of scaly redness

  • Recent streptococcal throat infection, viral infection, immunization, use of antimalarial drug, or trauma

  • Family history of similar rash

  • pain

  • Pruritus

  • No fever

  • Vesicles

  • Long-term rash with recent presentation of joint pain


Physical
Physical commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

  • Plaque psoriasis is characterized by raised inflamed lesions covered with a silvery white scale. This is most common on the extensor surfaces of the knees, elbows, scalp, and trunk.

  • Guttate psoriasis presents as small red dots of psoriasis that usually appear on the trunk, arms, and legs; It frequently appears suddenly after an upper respiratory infection (URI).


Physical1
Physical commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

  • Inverse psoriasis occurs on the flexural surfaces, armpit, groin, under the breast, and in the skin folds.

  • Pustular psoriasis presents as sterile pustules appearing on the hands and feet or, at times, diffusely.


Physical2
Physical commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

  • Erythrodermic psoriasis presents as generalized erythema, pain, itching, and fine scaling.

  • Scalp psoriasis affects approximately 50% of patients, presenting as erythematous raised plaques with silvery white scales on the scalp


Physical3
Physical commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

  • Nail psoriasis may cause pits on the nails, which may develop yellowish color and become thickened. Nails may separate from the nail bed.

  • Psoriatic arthritis affects approximately 10% of those with skin symptoms. The arthritis is usually in the hands, feet, and, at times, in larger joints. It produces stiffness, pain, and progressive joint damage


Treatment
TREATMENT commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

Many drugs that affect the rate of production of skin cells are used in psoriasis therapy alone or in combination with light therapy, stress reduction, and climatotherapy.

Adjuncts to treatment include sunshine, moisturizers, and salicylic acid as a scale-removing agent.

Generally, these therapies are used for patients with less than 20% of body surface area involved, unless the lesions are physically, socially, or economically disabling.


Treatment1
Treatment commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

Keratolytic agents

Coal tar

Topical corticosteroids

Vitamin D3 analogue


Treatment2
Treatment commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

Treatments for more general or advanced

psoriasis include UV-A light, psoralen plus UV-A

light (PUVA), retinoid eg acitretin, methotrexate

(particularly for arthritis), cyclosporine.


Treatment3
Treatment commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

The recognition of the central role of T cells and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the pathogenesis of psoriasis led to the development of new biologic treatments.


Treatment4
Treatment commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

Currently, three biologic TNF-α inhibitors:

Infliximab

Etanercept

Adalimumab

and two T-cell agents

Efalizumab

Alefacept


Treatment5
Treatment commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

It is recommend that these biologic agents

are used as a second-line therapy for

patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis

who have:

1- failed to respond to conventional nonbiologic agents,


Treatment6
Treatment commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

2- Have become intolerant to conventional

systemic therapy, and/or cannot receive conventional systemic therapy because of an

increased risk of developing clinically

relevant drug-related toxicity.


Treatment7
Treatment commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis

3- cannot receive conventional systemic therapy because of an increased risk of developing clinically relevant drug-related toxicity.


Pityriasis rosea

Pityriasis rosea commonly appears as inflamed, edematous skin lesions covered with a silvery white scale. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis



  • The disease typically begins with a solitary macule that heralds the eruption (called the herald spot/patch), which is usually a salmon-colored macule. This initial lesion enlarges over a few days to become a patch with a collarette of fine scale just inside the well-demarcated border.


  • Within the next 1-2 weeks, a generalized exanthem usually appears, although it may occur from hours to months after the herald patch. This secondary phase consists of bilateral and symmetric macules with a collarette scale oriented with their long axes along cleavage lines. This phase tends to resolve over the next 6 weeks, but variability is common.



  • Pathophysiology and it occurs in 75% of patients.

  • PR has often been considered to be a viral exanthem. Its clinical presentation supports this concept. PR has been linked to upper respiratory infections,, the incidence may increase in the fall and the spring. A single outbreak tends to elicit lifelong immunity.



Generally, the disease resolves within 12 weeks




Lichen planus

Lichen planus work or school because they are not considered to be contagious.


Lichen planus (LP) is a pruritic, papular eruption characterized by its violaceous color; polygonal shape; and, sometimes, fine scale. It is most commonly found on the flexor surfaces of the upper extremities, on the genitalia, and on the mucous membranes


Physical4
Physical characterized by its violaceous color; polygonal shape; and, sometimes, fine scale. It is most commonly found on the flexor surfaces of the upper extremities, on the genitalia, and on the mucous membranes

  • In addition to the cutaneous eruption, LP can involve the mucous membranes, the genitalia, the nails, and the scalp. The clinical presentation of LP has several forms: actinic, annular, atrophic, erosive, follicular, hypertrophic, linear, pigmented, and vesicular/bullous.


  • Mucous membrane involvement is common and may be found without skin involvement. Lesions are most commonly found on the tongue and the buccal mucosa; they are characterized by white or gray streaks forming a linear or reticular pattern on a violaceous background. Oral lesions are classified as reticular, plaquelike, atrophic, papular, erosive, and bullous.


  • Patients with a cutaneous eruption may also have follicular and perifollicular violaceous, scaly, pruritic papules on the scalp. These lesions can progress to atrophic cicatricial alopecia that can appear many weeks after the skin lesions have disappeared. Pseudopelade can be a final endpoint.


  • In 10% of patients, ungual findings are present. Most commonly, nail plate thinning causes longitudinal grooving and ridging. Hyperpigmentation, subungual hyperkeratosis, onycholysis, and longitudinal melanonychia can result from LP. Rarely, the matrix can be permanently destroyed with prominent pterygium formation


  • Variations in LP include the following: commonly, nail plate thinning causes longitudinal grooving and ridging. Hyperpigmentation, subungual hyperkeratosis, onycholysis, and longitudinal melanonychia can result from LP. Rarely, the matrix can be permanently destroyed with prominent pterygium formation

  • Hypertrophic LP: These extremely pruritic lesions are most often found on the extensor surfaces of the lower extremities, especially around the ankles. Hypertrophic lesions are often chronic; residual pigmentation and scarring can occur when the lesions eventually clear.



  • Actinic LP: Subtropic or actinic LP occurs in regions, such as Africa, the Middle East, and India. This mildly pruritic eruption usually spares the nails, the scalp, the mucous membranes, and covered areas. Lesions are characterized by nummular patches with a hypopigmented zone surrounding a hyperpigmented center





Pathophysiology keratotic papules that may coalesce into plaques. This condition is more common in women than in men, and ungual and erosive mucosal involvement is more likely to be present. A scarring alopecia may result

  • LP is a cell-mediated immune response of unknown origin.

  • LP may be found with other diseases of altered immunity; these conditions include ulcerative colitis, alopecia areata, vitiligo, dermatomyositis, morphea, lichen sclerosis, and myasthenia gravis.


  • An association is noted between LP and hepatitis C virus infection, chronic active hepatitis, and primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatitis should be considered in patients with widespread or unusual presentations of LP.  Onset or exacerbation of LP has been linked to stressful events.


Histologic Findings infection, chronic active hepatitis, and primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatitis should be considered in patients with widespread or unusual presentations of LP.  Onset or exacerbation of LP has been linked to stressful events.

  • The histopathologic features distinguish LP based on the presence of irregular acanthosis and colloid bodies in the epidermis with destruction of the basal layer. The upper dermis has a bandlike infiltrate of lymphocytes and histiocytes.


Differentials
DIFFERENTIALS infection, chronic active hepatitis, and primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatitis should be considered in patients with widespread or unusual presentations of LP.  Onset or exacerbation of LP has been linked to stressful events.

Graft Versus Host DiseaseLichen NitidusLichen Simplex ChronicusPityriasis RoseaPsoriasis, GuttatePsoriasis, PlaqueSyphilisTinea Corporis


Medical Care infection, chronic active hepatitis, and primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatitis should be considered in patients with widespread or unusual presentations of LP.  Onset or exacerbation of LP has been linked to stressful events.

LP is a self-limited disease that usually resolves within 8-12 months. Mild cases can be treated with fluorinated topical steroids. More severe cases, especially those with scalp, nail, and mucous membrane involvement, may need more intensive therapy


The first-line treatments of cutaneous LP are topical steroids, particularly class I or II ointments. A second choice would be systemic steroids for symptom control and possibly more rapid resolution



Patients with widespread LP may respond to narrow-band or broadband UV-B therapy. Psoralen with UV-A (PUVA) therapy for 8 weeks has been reported to be effective.


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