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Summary of Metabolism. Basic Strategies of Catabolic Metabolism. Generate ATP Generate reducing power Generate building blocks for biosynthesis. ATP. Universal currency of energy High phosphoryl-transfer potential

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basic strategies of catabolic metabolism
Basic Strategies of Catabolic Metabolism
  • Generate ATP
  • Generate reducing power
  • Generate building blocks for biosynthesis
  • Universal currency of energy
  • High phosphoryl-transfer potential
  • ATP hydrolysis drives reactions by changing the equilibrium of coupled reactions by a factor of 108
  • Generated from the oxidation of fuel molecules

Reducing Power

  • Oxidation of fuel molecules generates NADH for mitochondrial ETC
  • NADPH is generated for reducing power for biosynthetic processes
  • Pentose phosphate pathway is the major source of NADPH


  • Large number of diverse macromolecules are synthesized from a small number of building blocks.
  • Carbon skeletons from generated from the oxidation of macromolecules provide the building blocks for biosynthetic pathways.
  • Central metabolic pathways have anabolic as well as catabolic roles.

Relationships between catabolic and anabolic processes

  • The pathway leading to the biosynthesis of a compound are distinct from the pathway leading to its breakdown
  • This separation ensure that the processes are thermodynamically favorable in both directions
  • Allows for reciprocal regulation

Themes in Metabolic Regulation

  • Allosteric regulation
  • Covalent modification
  • Control of enzyme levels
  • Compartmentalization
  • Metabolic specialization of organs

Allosteric regulation

  • Typically associated with enzymes that catalyze irreversible reactions
  • Allosteric regulators can cause feed back or feedforward regualtion
  • Allosteric regulators are often related to the energy state of the cell
  • This type of regulation allows for immediate response to changes in metabolic flux (milliseconds to seconds)
  • Functions at local level

Covalent Modification

  • Covalent modification of last step in signal transduction pathway
  • Allows pathway to be rapidly up or down regulated by small amounts of triggering signal (HORMONES)
  • Last longer than do allosteric regulation (seconds to minutes)
  • Functions at whole body level

Enzyme Levels

  • Amount of enzyme determines rates of activity
  • Regulation occurs at the level of gene expression
  • Transcription, translation
  • mRNA turnover, protein turnover
  • Can also occur in response to hormones
  • Longer term type of regulation


  • One way to allow reciprocal regulation of catabolic and anabolic processes

Specialization of Organs

  • Regulation in higher eukaryotes
  • Organs have different metabolic roles i.e. Liver = gluconeogenesis, Muscle = glycolysis
  • Metabolic specialization is the result of differential gene expression

Lots ATP



Need skeltons

  • Fuels change from glucose to fatty acids to ketone bodies