Summary of metabolism
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Summary of Metabolism. Basic Strategies of Catabolic Metabolism. Generate ATP Generate reducing power Generate building blocks for biosynthesis. ATP. Universal currency of energy High phosphoryl-transfer potential

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Summary of Metabolism

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Summary of metabolism

Summary of Metabolism


Basic strategies of catabolic metabolism

Basic Strategies of Catabolic Metabolism

  • Generate ATP

  • Generate reducing power

  • Generate building blocks for biosynthesis


Summary of metabolism

ATP

  • Universal currency of energy

  • High phosphoryl-transfer potential

  • ATP hydrolysis drives reactions by changing the equilibrium of coupled reactions by a factor of 108

  • Generated from the oxidation of fuel molecules


Summary of metabolism

Reducing Power

  • Oxidation of fuel molecules generates NADH for mitochondrial ETC

  • NADPH is generated for reducing power for biosynthetic processes

  • Pentose phosphate pathway is the major source of NADPH


Summary of metabolism

Biomolecules

  • Large number of diverse macromolecules are synthesized from a small number of building blocks.

  • Carbon skeletons from generated from the oxidation of macromolecules provide the building blocks for biosynthetic pathways.

  • Central metabolic pathways have anabolic as well as catabolic roles.


Summary of metabolism

Relationships between catabolic and anabolic processes

  • The pathway leading to the biosynthesis of a compound are distinct from the pathway leading to its breakdown

  • This separation ensure that the processes are thermodynamically favorable in both directions

  • Allows for reciprocal regulation


Summary of metabolism

Themes in Metabolic Regulation

  • Allosteric regulation

  • Covalent modification

  • Control of enzyme levels

  • Compartmentalization

  • Metabolic specialization of organs


Summary of metabolism

Allosteric regulation

  • Typically associated with enzymes that catalyze irreversible reactions

  • Allosteric regulators can cause feed back or feedforward regualtion

  • Allosteric regulators are often related to the energy state of the cell

  • This type of regulation allows for immediate response to changes in metabolic flux (milliseconds to seconds)

  • Functions at local level


Summary of metabolism

Covalent Modification

  • Covalent modification of last step in signal transduction pathway

  • Allows pathway to be rapidly up or down regulated by small amounts of triggering signal (HORMONES)

  • Last longer than do allosteric regulation (seconds to minutes)

  • Functions at whole body level


Summary of metabolism

Enzyme Levels

  • Amount of enzyme determines rates of activity

  • Regulation occurs at the level of gene expression

  • Transcription, translation

  • mRNA turnover, protein turnover

  • Can also occur in response to hormones

  • Longer term type of regulation


Summary of metabolism

Compartmentalization

  • One way to allow reciprocal regulation of catabolic and anabolic processes


Summary of metabolism

Specialization of Organs

  • Regulation in higher eukaryotes

  • Organs have different metabolic rolesi.e. Liver = gluconeogenesis,Muscle = glycolysis

  • Metabolic specialization is the result of differential gene expression


Summary of metabolism

Lots ATP

G-6-P

Low ATP

Need skeltons


Starvation

Starvation

  • Fuels change from glucose to fatty acids to ketone bodies


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