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Regulation of Metabolism. How does the body know when to increase metabolism? Slow metabolism? What might be some indicators of energy status within the cell?. Requires communication. Works through allosteric regulation of enzyme activity. Mechanisms of Cellular Communication.

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Regulation of metabolism
Regulation of Metabolism

  • How does the body know when to increase metabolism? Slow metabolism?

  • What might be some indicators of energy status within the cell?

Requires communication

Works through allosteric regulation of enzyme activity






Most regulation occurs in order to maintain stable blood glucose concentrations for supplying fuel to the brain!


Protein or peptide hormone

Almost always proteins called kinases

Activation/inactivation of an enzyme; opening/closing a membrane channel; activating a transcription factor

Figure 6-3


Steroid Hormones

(examples: cortisol, testosterone, estrogen

Figure 6-4 (2 of 3)


Protein/peptide hormones

(examples: epinephrine, insulin, glucagon, oxytocin)

Figure 6-4 (3 of 3)



Amplification

What are some advantages to having an amplified signal?

What might be some disadvantages?

Figure 6-7


How is the signal from the hormone (signal molecule) binding to the receptor transmitted into the interior of the cell?

Figure 6-8


Table 6-1 to the receptor transmitted into the interior of the cell?


Table 6-2 to the receptor transmitted into the interior of the cell?


Insulin works through a tyrosine kinase (TK) receptor mechanism

Insulin from b cells of the pancreas

Figure 6-10


Insulin regulation of glucose entry in skeletal muscle mechanism

*Overall insulin promotes storage of glucose as a fuel and a reduction of blood glucose when elevated

Figure taken from: http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22


Insulin regulation of glucose metabolism in the liver mechanism

Figure taken from: http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22


Figure taken from: http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22


Major effects of insulin
Major Effects of Insulin http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22

  • Skeletal muscle takes up glucose from blood

  • Liver takes up glucose, increases glycogen production

  • Liver increases fatty acid synthesis when its glycogen stores are full

  • Adipose takes up blood glucose and fatty acid breakdown is inhibited

    Overall insulin has a fat sparing action. It works to store excess energy


Mechanism of action for glucagon http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22

Glucagon from a cells of pancreas

Figure 6-11 - Overview


  • Major effects of glucagon http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22:

  • Stimulates breakdown of glycogen stored in the liver

  • Activates hepatic gluconeogenesis (using amino acids and other non-carbohydrate precursors)

Overall the effects of glucagon are to increase blood glucose when it is low

Figure from: http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/pancreas/glucagon.html


Glucogenic amino acids http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22

Lactate from muscle

(Cori Cycle)

Figure taken from: http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gluconeogenesis.html


Figure taken from: http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gluconeogenesis.html


Thyroid releasing hormone/Thyroid stimulating hormone/Thyroid hormone

Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary Thyroid gland

Figure 6-12 - Overview


Figure taken from: http://www.nature.com/ncpendmet/journal/v1/n1/fig_tab/ncpendmet0020_F1.html


Epinephrine works on cells via Ca2+ as a second messenger hormone/Thyroid hormone

  • Increases glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis

  • Increases release of glucagon and cortisol

Figure 6-15


Epinephrine can also work via the cAMP signal transduction pathway

Phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase; increases breakdown of glycogen in liver


Test your knowledge
Test Your Knowledge pathway

  • The major hormones that promote glucose release into the blood are:

  • The major hormones that promote storage of glucose are:

  • A hepatic cell has receptors for epinephrine, glucagon, and insulin. These hormones may or may not act in concert to produce a desired effect. How does the hepatocyte know what to do?

  • What are the major second messenger systems used by the hormones that regulate blood glucose? What is the end result of activation of these second messenger systems?


Figure 6-14 pathway


Figure 6-16 pathway


Figure 6-17 pathway


Table 6-3 pathway


Table 6-5 pathway


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