Regulation of metabolism
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Regulation of Metabolism. How does the body know when to increase metabolism? Slow metabolism? What might be some indicators of energy status within the cell?. Requires communication. Works through allosteric regulation of enzyme activity. Mechanisms of Cellular Communication.

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Regulation of Metabolism

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Regulation of metabolism

Regulation of Metabolism

  • How does the body know when to increase metabolism? Slow metabolism?

  • What might be some indicators of energy status within the cell?

Requires communication

Works through allosteric regulation of enzyme activity


Regulation of metabolism

Mechanisms of Cellular Communication

Figure 6-1 - Overview


Regulation of metabolism

Figure 6-2b


Regulation of metabolism

Figure 6-2c


Regulation of metabolism

Figure 6-2a


Regulation of metabolism

  • What Hormones Regulate Metabolism?

  • Insulin

  • Glucagon

  • Thyroid hormone

  • Cortisol

  • Epinephrine

Most regulation occurs in order to maintain stable blood glucose concentrations for supplying fuel to the brain!


Regulation of metabolism

Protein or peptide hormone

Almost always proteins called kinases

Activation/inactivation of an enzyme; opening/closing a membrane channel; activating a transcription factor

Figure 6-3


Regulation of metabolism

Steroid Hormones

(examples: cortisol, testosterone, estrogen

Figure 6-4 (2 of 3)


Regulation of metabolism

Protein/peptide hormones

(examples: epinephrine, insulin, glucagon, oxytocin)

Figure 6-4 (3 of 3)


Regulation of metabolism

Figure 6-5


Regulation of metabolism

Amplification

What are some advantages to having an amplified signal?

What might be some disadvantages?

Figure 6-7


Regulation of metabolism

How is the signal from the hormone (signal molecule) binding to the receptor transmitted into the interior of the cell?

Figure 6-8


Regulation of metabolism

Table 6-1


Regulation of metabolism

Table 6-2


Regulation of metabolism

Insulin works through a tyrosine kinase (TK) receptor mechanism

Insulin from b cells of the pancreas

Figure 6-10


Regulation of metabolism

Insulin regulation of glucose entry in skeletal muscle

*Overall insulin promotes storage of glucose as a fuel and a reduction of blood glucose when elevated

Figure taken from: http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22


Regulation of metabolism

Insulin regulation of glucose metabolism in the liver

Figure taken from: http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22


Regulation of metabolism

Figure taken from: http://www.smbs.buffalo.edu/bch/Courses/bch404/GW_Nature_InsulinSig.pdf#search=%22GLUT4%20vesicles%20micrograph%22


Major effects of insulin

Major Effects of Insulin

  • Skeletal muscle takes up glucose from blood

  • Liver takes up glucose, increases glycogen production

  • Liver increases fatty acid synthesis when its glycogen stores are full

  • Adipose takes up blood glucose and fatty acid breakdown is inhibited

    Overall insulin has a fat sparing action. It works to store excess energy


Regulation of metabolism

Mechanism of action for glucagon

Glucagon from a cells of pancreas

Figure 6-11 - Overview


Regulation of metabolism

  • Major effects of glucagon:

  • Stimulates breakdown of glycogen stored in the liver

  • Activates hepatic gluconeogenesis (using amino acids and other non-carbohydrate precursors)

Overall the effects of glucagon are to increase blood glucose when it is low

Figure from: http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/pancreas/glucagon.html


Regulation of metabolism

Glucogenic amino acids

Lactate from muscle

(Cori Cycle)

Figure taken from: http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gluconeogenesis.html


Regulation of metabolism

Figure taken from: http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gluconeogenesis.html


Regulation of metabolism

Thyroid releasing hormone/Thyroid stimulating hormone/Thyroid hormone

Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary Thyroid gland

Figure 6-12 - Overview


Regulation of metabolism

  • Increased metabolic rate and heat production

  • Increased fat mobilization

  • Increased carbohydrate metabolism

Figure taken from: http://www.nature.com/ncpendmet/journal/v1/n1/fig_tab/ncpendmet0020_F1.html


Regulation of metabolism

Epinephrine works on cells via Ca2+ as a second messenger

  • Increases glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis

  • Increases release of glucagon and cortisol

Figure 6-15


Regulation of metabolism

Epinephrine can also work via the cAMP signal transduction pathway

Phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase; increases breakdown of glycogen in liver


Test your knowledge

Test Your Knowledge

  • The major hormones that promote glucose release into the blood are:

  • The major hormones that promote storage of glucose are:

  • A hepatic cell has receptors for epinephrine, glucagon, and insulin. These hormones may or may not act in concert to produce a desired effect. How does the hepatocyte know what to do?

  • What are the major second messenger systems used by the hormones that regulate blood glucose? What is the end result of activation of these second messenger systems?


Regulation of metabolism

Figure 6-14


Regulation of metabolism

Figure 6-16


Regulation of metabolism

Figure 6-17


Regulation of metabolism

Table 6-3


Regulation of metabolism

Table 6-5


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