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All fungi PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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All fungi. make their food. absorb their food. produce mushrooms. have chlorophyll. Fungi do NOT. carry on photosynthesis. grow on their food source. digest food outside their bodies. absorb food through their cell walls. Fungi resemble plants in that they both always. have stems.

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All fungi

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All fungi

  • make their food.

  • absorb their food.

  • produce mushrooms.

  • have chlorophyll.

Fungi do NOT

  • carry on photosynthesis.

  • grow on their food source.

  • digest food outside their bodies.

  • absorb food through their cell walls.

Fungi resemble plants in that they both always

  • have stems.

  • grow from the ground.

  • are multicellular.

  • have cell walls.

A mushroom is a fungal

  • fruiting body.

  • lichen.

  • mycorrhiza.

  • yeast.

The tangled mass that makes up the body of a fungus is the

  • hypha.

  • rhizoid.

  • mycelium.

  • stolon.

Fungal hyphae, shown in Figure 21–1, differ in that some lack

  • cell walls.

  • cross walls.

  • nuclei.

  • cytoplasm.

Most fungi reproduce

  • asexually only.

  • sexually only.

  • both sexually and asexually.

  • by budding.

Stinkhorns, which mimic the odor of rotting meat, have spores that are dispersed by

  • wind.

  • birds.

  • snow.

  • flies.

When hyphae of opposite mating types meet, they first

  • enter mitosis

  • grow and develop.

  • enter meiosis.

  • fuse.

Sporangia are found at the tops of specialized hyphae called

  • sporangiophores.

  • mycelia.

  • gametangia.

  • stolons.

Only during a small part of their life cycles are most fungi

  • diploid.

  • haploid.

  • 1N.

  • 3N.

Which of the following processes is first to occur after the nuclei of opposite mating types fuse?

  • Spores are produced.

  • Gametes are produced.

  • Mitosis occurs.

  • Meiosis occurs.

Dark fuzz that grows on bread is an example of

  • toadstool.

  • spore.

  • yeast.

  • mold.

Rhizopus reproduces

  • by sexual fusion only.

  • by sexual fusion and asexually only.

  • by budding and asexually only.

  • all of the above

In bread mold, haploid gametes are produced by the

  • gametangia.

  • rhizoids.

  • zygospores.

  • sporangiophores.

Bread rises because fermentation by yeast produces

  • spores.

  • rhizoids.

  • water.

  • carbon dioxide.

The dry, powdered yeast used to bake bread actually contains

  • zygospores.

  • ascospores.

  • conidia.

  • sporangia.

Yeasts obtain energy by alcoholic fermentation in the absence of

  • moisture.

  • carbon dioxide.

  • oxygen.

  • sugar.

Mushrooms are classified as

  • common molds.

  • sac fungi.

  • club fungi.

  • imperfect fungi.

Which structure is NOT found in a mushroom?

  • ascus

  • gills

  • cap

  • stalk

In mushrooms, the basidia are found in the

  • base.

  • stalk.

  • cap.

  • root.

Over time, nutrients at the center of a large underground mycelium become depleted, causing new mushrooms to sprout only

  • in a cluster at the center.

  • in a ring at the outer edges.

  • when the nutrients are replaced.

  • after budding takes place.

Each of the following is a basidiomycete EXCEPT

  • shelf fungi.

  • mushrooms.

  • puffballs.

  • cup fungi.

In basidiomycetes, the primary mycelia of different mating types fuse to form

  • a secondary mycelium.

  • haploid zygotes.

  • gills.

  • haploid nuclei of the same mating type.

Which statement about Penicillium is correct?

  • It produces mushrooms.

  • It causes bread to rise.

  • It is the source of an antibiotic.

  • It causes athlete’s foot.

Penicillium reproduces only asexually but otherwise resembles a(an)

  • ascomycete.

  • zygomycete.

  • basidiomycete.

  • lichen.

Penicillium may have evolved from an ascomycete that lost its ability to carry out

  • asexual reproduction.

  • sexual reproduction.

  • spore formation.

  • conidia formation.

An important role of fungi in an ecosystem is

  • photosynthesis.

  • breaking down dead organisms.

  • making alcohol.

  • killing bacteria.

Millions of years ago, fungi might have been important to the success of

  • worms.

  • grasshoppers.

  • bacteria.

  • plants.

Fungi that absorb food from decaying organic matter are

  • parasites.

  • saprobes.

  • mutualists.

  • autotrophs.

Fungi feed on

  • only living organisms.

  • only dead organisms.

  • both living and dead organisms.

  • only other fungi.

The breakdown of dead organisms is sped on by the fungal production of

  • alcohols.

  • acids.

  • digestive enzymes.

  • recycled nutrients.

Which of the following statements about fungi is true?

  • They bind trace elements and hold them.

  • They return trace elements to the soil.

  • They do not affect trace elements.

  • They deplete the soil of trace elements.

The human disease ringworm is caused by

  • worms.

  • bacteria.

  • a fungus.

  • yeasts.

The growth of yeasts in moist regions of the body is kept in check by competition from

  • antibiotics.

  • bacteria.

  • rusts.

  • mildews.

Crop damage by fungal diseases is

  • greatest in tropical areas.

  • least in tropical areas.

  • greatest in temperate areas.

  • not affected by climate.

The fungus that forms a mycelium within the outer layers of human skin causes

  • ringworm and athlete’s foot.

  • thrush and reproductive-tract infections.

  • reproductive-tract infections and ringworm.

  • athlete’s foot and thrush.

Each of the following is true of wheat rust EXCEPT that it

  • is caused by a basidiomycete.

  • is carried by insects into wheat fields.

  • is controlled by destroying barberry plants.

  • produces two kinds of spores.

The normal balance between bacteria and yeasts in the body can be upset by

  • eating yeast-leavened bread.

  • eating edible mushrooms.

  • using antibiotics.

  • being exposed to mushroom spores.

Figure 21–2 illustrates an association of a(an)

  • cyanobacterium and a plant.

  • alga or cyanobacterium and a fungus.

  • plant and a fungus.

  • alga and a plant.

Which of the following is NOT a single organism?

  • rust

  • smut

  • yeast

  • lichen

Which statement about lichens is correct?

  • They are not tolerant of harsh conditions.

  • They cannot make their own food.

  • They grow only in soil.

  • They are composed of an alga or a cyanobacterium and a fungus living together.

The association of plants and fungi in mycorrhizae illustrates a type of relationship called

  • parasitism.

  • mutualism.

  • competition.

  • parallelism.

In most lichens, the fungus is a(an)

  • basidiomycete.

  • zygomycete.

  • ascomycete.

  • deuteromycete.

Beneath the forest floor, carbon atoms can be moved from one tree to the next by

  • orchids.

  • fungal spores.

  • mycorrhizae.

  • lichens.

Fungi are prokaryotic heterotrophs. _________________________

  • True

  • False

Fungi absorb their food. _________________________

  • True

  • False

In some fungi, the nuclei are divided by cross walls. _________________________

  • True

  • False

Fungal cell walls are composed of cellulose. _________________________

  • True

  • False

During most of the life cycle of a fungus, the nuclei are diploid. _________________________

  • True

  • False

In zygomycetes, the rootlike hyphae that anchor the fungus are called rhizoids. _________________________

  • True

  • False

In zygomycetes, a germinating zygospore undergoes mitosis and develops into a new individual. _________________________

  • True

  • False

Ascomycetes have a tough sac that contains spores. _________________________

  • True

  • False

Both the ascospores and conidia of ascomycetes are haploid. _________________________

  • True

  • False

Basidiomycetes resemble other fungal phyla but do not have a sexual cycle. _________________________

  • True

  • False

Fungi recycle nutrients in all ecosystems. _________________________

  • True

  • False

Early fungi may have helped plants obtain nutrients. _________________________

  • True

  • False

Mycorrhizae are beneficial associations of fungi and animals. _________________________

  • True

  • False

Repeated infections by Candida could indicate a problem with the body’s immune system. _________________________

  • True

  • False

In lichens, a plant associated with a fungus carries out photosynthesis. _________________________

  • True

  • False

Participant Scores

0 of 5

Fungi ____________________ their food outside their bodies and then absorb it.

0 of 5

Chitin, the material that forms fungal cell walls, is a complex _________________________.

0 of 5

____________________ reproduction takes place when cells or hyphae break off a fungus and begin to grow.

0 of 5

Fungal spores are produced in structures called ____________________.

0 of 5

When the hyphae of opposite mating types meet, each hypha forms a _________________________.

0 of 5

A zygomycete is a thick-walled zygote formed by a ____________________.

Figure 21–3

0 of 5

In the ____________________ stage of ascomycetes, shown in Figure 21–3, cells contain two nuclei.

0 of 5

Spore-bearing structures called basidia are found in the ____________________ of mushrooms.

0 of 5

A very large secondary mycelium may be produced by older _________________________.

0 of 5

The basidiospores of ____________________ fungi are scattered by the wind.

0 of 5

Imperfect fungi do not have a ____________________ phase.

0 of 5

If a sexual phase were observed in a deuteromycete, it would probably be reclassified in another ____________________.

0 of 5

Fungi break down complex organic matter by releasing ____________________.

0 of 5

A serious fungal disease of ____________________ needs two different plants to complete its life cycle.

Figure 21–2

0 of 5

The cyanobacterium or algal layer of the ____________________ shown in Figure 21–2 performs photosynthesis.

0 of 5

What are the individual threads of a fungus called, and what structure do they form when they appear as a tangled mass?

Figure 21–1

0 of 5

How do the two types of hyphae shown in Figure 21–1 differ?

0 of 5

Why are the two mating types of fungi not referred to as male and female?

0 of 5

What three functions do rhizoids serve in fungi?

0 of 5

In bread mold, how do zygospores differ from the spores produced on aerial hyphae?

0 of 5

Which fungal phylum contains organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye, and what are they?

Figure 21–3

0 of 5

In the ascomycete fruiting body shown in Figure 21–3, how many nuclei are found in each cell of the hyphae, and what separates each cell of the hyphae?

0 of 5

Name two commercial uses of yeast.

0 of 5

Why are basidiomycetes called club fungi?

0 of 5

Suppose you like mushrooms and see some growing in a yard. Would you pick and eat them? Why or why not?

0 of 5

What is the most important role of fungi in natural ecosystems, and why is this role important?

0 of 5

Cite an example of a competition between humans and fungi for nutrients.

0 of 5

How does Cordyceps affect the insects it infects?

0 of 5

How do lichens encourage soil formation on barren rock?

0 of 5

How do fungi release nutrients from once-living things?

0 of 5

Does the haploid or diploid condition occur most in the life cycle of fungi? Explain your answer

0 of 5

Name the four phyla of fungi. What characteristic determines the phylum into which a fungus is placed?

0 of 5

Compare and contrast sexual and asexual reproduction in bread mold.

0 of 5

Describe the fruiting body of a mushroom. What allows a mushroom to develop very quickly—sometimes overnight?

0 of 5

Some giant fairy rings may be centuries old. Why do fairy rings increase in size over the years?

0 of 5

After a few days of exposure to the air at room temperature, a piece of bread or other food will become covered with colonies of molds and other fungi. Why does this occur?

0 of 5

How are fungi both helpful and harmful to people?

0 of 5

Explain the difference between a saprophyte, a parasite, and a mutualist.

0 of 5

Why is it not beneficial to kill all bacteria on and in the body, and what is a common result of killing naturally occurring bacteria?

0 of 5

About 90 percent of all trees have mycorrhizae. Why are mycorrhizae important?

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