Unit 5 The power of nature. 基础知识自测. 一、单词拼写 根据读音、词性和词义写出下列单词。 1._____________ [ vCl5keinEu ] n. 火山 2._____________ [i 5rQpt ]vi. ( 火山 ) 爆发 3. _____________[ AN^5zaiEti ] n. 担心；焦虑 4._____________ [ 5trembl ] vi. 摇晃；颤动 5._____________ [ bC :]vt. 使感到厌烦
1._____________ [vCl5keinEu] n. 火山
2._____________ [i5rQpt]vi. (火山) 爆发
3. _____________[AN^5zaiEti] n. 担心；焦虑
4._____________ [5trembl] vi. 摇晃；颤动
5._____________ [bC:]vt. 使感到厌烦
6._____________ [5kAnsEl]vt. 取消；撤消
7._____________ [5kQridV]n. 勇气,胆量
8._____________ [dai5vE:siti]n. 多样性；多种多样
9. _____________ [Ed5ventFE]n.冒险
10.____________ [i5vAljueit]v. 评价；估计
13.____________ [5fauntin]n. 喷泉
14.____________ [5AbsElu:tli]adv. 绝对地；完全地
15._________________ [Qn5fC:tjJnEtlI]adv. 不幸地
16.____________ [5pAnik]vi.& n. 惊慌
17.____________ [5preFEs]adj. 珍贵的；贵重的
19.____________ [im5pres]vt. 给…留下深该印象
20.____________ [7^ArEn5ti:]vt. 保证；担保
1．The students were e_________ to hear the news that their team had won the game.
2．Sometimes the teacher’s teaching is b_________ that some students even feel asleep I class.
3．A volcanologist is a person who studies the formation of v______________, and their current and historic eruptions.
4．Li Ping fell off his bike and hurt himself yesterday, f______________, it wasn't serious.
5．People all over the world were a_____________ to have peace.
6．The soldier had shown great __________(勇气) in the battle.
7．In my childhood, my father i___________ on me the value of hard work..
8．I have_____________(删去) many unnecessary words in my manuscript (原稿).
9.The new television ___________(保修单) had a with it.
10．All the children listened to his_____________(冒险) with eager attention.
1. The crowd feel excited to hear the __________ (excite) news。
2. The Anthem Olympic Games was really an _____________( impress) one.
3. Thanks to your ________________(encourage), I’ve made great progress in my study.
4. The teacher praised him for his ______________（anxious）for knowledge.
5．________________（fortunate）, belts are worn only by a small percentage of drivers and passengers.
6．_________(bathe) in the polluted water resulted in their disease.
7．The research project has only been under way for three months, so it's too early ________________(evaluate) its success
8．It is really a ___________（fantasy）place for the children to play.
9．Real friend ship is ________________(precious) than money.
10．The meeting had to _______________ (cancel) in the end because of the heavy storm.
2. make one’s way _____________
3. vary from…to ________________
4. meet with _________________
5. make an effort ________________
8. 冒险 ____________________
10. 将…比做 ________________
be covered with
burn to the ground
take a risk
1. Living in a town can't ________________living in the country in many respects.
2. It was a dark rainy night and they ______________
to the village at the foot of the mountain.
3. There are different kinds of computers in the store and their prices ______________2,000 yuan ______ 12,000 yuan.
4. About 71 % of the surface of the earth ____________________water.
made their way
vary from to
is covered with
5. In the bookstore, I__________(遇到) a former classmate.
6. Can you _________________ (看看) the figures for me?
7. The big fire _________ the house ________________
burned to the ground
A teacher's work is often compared to a candle.
He took a risk when he crossed the old bridge.
He made an effort to climb the wall.
erupt. vi ( 指火山，战争，危机，问题等）
Violence erupted in the city after the football match.
eruption . n
explode 爆炸 burst 爆炸，炸开
a volcano erupting 是一个动名词的复合结构，
在此作shows的宾语，其中a volcano 是动名
I don’t understand his / him behaving like that.
share. vt. 分享，分配，分摊 ； 共有，
Sue shares a house with three other students .
We shared the pizza between the four of us.
Men often don’t like to share their problems.
Both drivers shared the blame for the accident.
share. n 一部分；一定量，一份，股份
the lion’s share最大，（或最好）的一份
yet. 在此是连词，作“但是，然而” （but, however)
I have slept eight full hours, yet I’m still sleepy.
并列连词 powerless.but不可与从属连词though/ although 同时出现，而yet 作为副词，可与though /although 同时出现
---Have you been to New Zealand ?
--- No, I’d like to, _______.
A, too B. though C. yet D. either
though 可用作副词，意为“然而，但是”, 需置于
4. Can you imagine climb into powerless.a live volcano in order to take the temperature of the boiling rock
live animals. 活的
live coverage of the World Cup
live coals powerless.燃烧着的煤块
Pollution is still very much a live issue.
living , powerless.lively, alive, lovely, live的区别：
live , 活的, 现场直播的
take the temperature of sb. powerless.
take sb’s temperature,
have /run a temperature 发烧
（=have / run a fever）
5. Do you like adventure in your life? powerless.
adventure. n. 奇遇，冒险（活动）
She is so shy a girl that she never __________ an opinion in public.
Boys like adventure.
6. I am never bored. powerless.
bore. vt 使感到厌烦
bore. n 令人讨厌的人或事物
bored. adj. 感到厌烦的
boring adj. 令人厌烦的
Mr. Smith, ______ of the ______ speech, started to read a novel.
There was a ______ expression on his face.
The speech was so ______ that I fell asleep
excite. vt. 使兴奋； 使激动
Much to our excitements, our team won the game again
The exciting look on his face suggested that he was much excited at the exciting news.
Excitedly, my best friend Peter has come out first in the contest.
8. powerless.However, the most important thing about my job is that I help to protect people from one of the …
that I help to … 这是that 引导的表语从句，在从句中，
____ the young man works very hard is _____the manager appreciates him for.
thus . 如此，这样，因而，从而
yet. 还，尚未（否定句）， 然而，尽管
however, therefore, instead, thus, yet powerless.
1. At his age, he is supposed to study hard at school. _______ he spends most of his time in the net bar.
2. There is still much to discuss. We shall, _________, return to this item at our next meeting.
3. Although he didn’t attend the meeting, ____ he knows everything about it.
4. We thought the figures were correct. ________, we have discovered some errors.
5. He’s only 17 and ____________ not eligible to vote.
6. He is the eldest son and _____________ heir to the title.
9. discovered some errors.Having collected and evaluated the information, I help other scientists to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast it will flow.
“ Having … information” 用现在分词的完成式，在句中作时间状语，表明该动作发生在主句动作之前。
Not wishing to continue my studies, I decided to become a dress designer.
由于没有收到回音，他决定再写一封信。 discovered some errors.
Not having received a reply, he decided to write again.
evaluate v. 评估；评价；估计
I can’t evaluate his ability without seeing his work.
It’s hard to evaluate her as a singer.
10. discovered some errors.Unfortunately, we can’t move their homes out of the way and many houses have been covered with lava or burned to the ground.
unfortunate. adj. 不幸的，倒霉的
归纳拓展： discovered some errors.
unfortunately. adv. 遗憾地，不幸地
fortunate adj. 交好运的，带来好运的；幸运的
make a fortune 发财
try one’s fortune 外出找出路
burn to the ground cars.全部焚毁
The house was burnt to the ground.
burn down ( burn to the ground ) 烧毁，烧平
burn up 烧掉，烧毁
burn out 烧光，烧尽
When boiling rock erupts from the volcano and crashes back to earth, it causes less damage than you might imagine.
This is because no one lives near the top of Mount Kilauea where the rock fall.
The lava that flows slowly down the mountain causes far more damage because it buries everything in its path underthe molten rock.
11. I was where the rock fall. fast asleep when suddenly my bed began shaking and I heard a strange sound.
12. Having experienced where the rock fall. quite a few earthquakes in Hawaii already.
quite a few (口语）相当多的
(= not a few)
Not a few people have made that mistake.
a few where the rock fall. 几个 ( 表示肯定意义）
only a few 仅少数的，只有几个
not a little 相当多的
quite a little
only a little 只有一点点
13. I where the rock fall. was about to go back to sleep when suddenly
my bedroom became as bright as day.
was about to
+ when 这时，突然
was doing sth.
He was about to leave when the telephone rang.
The Smiths were watching TV when someone
called “ fire” outside.
14. where the rock fall. in the distance 在远处；在遥远的地方
at a distance 以一定距离 在稍远处
fountain. 是人造喷泉, 而指天然喷泉时则用spring.
A group of children are playing in the fountain in the park.
An encyclopedia is fountain of knowledge.
15. It was an where the rock fall. absolutelyfantastic sight.
我认为他们那样对待那个孩子绝对不光彩( disgrace )。
I think it’s an absolute disgrace the way they treat that child.
* where the rock fall. absolute 还意为“确实的”，“的确如此”的，“无疑的”,”独立的”
absolute truth 事实真相
absolute alcohol 无水酒精
It’s an absolute fact.这是千真万确的事。
absolutely. adv. 绝对，完全地， 常用于回答问题或用作评语
-- Do you agree with me?
海湾的夜景更美。 where the rock fall.
The night view of the bay is even more fantastic.
insects of fantastic shapes 奇型怪状的昆虫
a fantastic plan 不切实际的计划
fantastically adv. 难以置信地；奇异地；极好地
fantasize v. 想象；幻想
fantasy n. 想象；幻想， 幻想出来的东西
16. It wasn’t very easy to walk in these suits, but we slowly made our way to the edge of the crater and looked down into the crater.
make one’s way( to) . 前进，前往，获得成功；发迹
We made our way down the hill towards the town.
Henderson began to make his way in politics.
与 slowly way有关的词组：
make way ( for) 让路；让出位置
fight one’s way 奋勇前进
lose one’s way 迷路
go one’s way 走自己的路
feel one’s way 摸索前进
make its way slowly 有利可图
make the best of one’s way 尽快走
push one’s way 挤过
find a way out 找出出路
find one’s way找到路；设法达到
out of the way 不挡道；不碍事
in the way 挡道的；妨碍人的
In a way 在某点上；在某种程度上
17. slowly potential. un. 潜在性；可能性；潜能
He is a young singer with great potential.
the potentials of the technology
这些鱼的价格从 slowly 3镑到5镑不等。
The price of these fish varyfrom£3 to £5.
1.The height of the land variesfrom 700
metres above sea level to over 2,000 meters and is home to a great diversity of plants and animals.
You need a lot of slowly variety in your diet.
The plants of Asia show a great diversity of form.
diversity n. 变化多样，多样性
据说，据报道 slowly …
2. It is said that this boy, who had a great gift for languages and persuasion, is the father of the Manchu people.
it is said that… :
have a great gift for…:
We can’t guarantee that all our flights will never be delayed.
The weather here varies from hour to hour.
3. slowly 他匆匆看了一遍那道题就开始回答了。
He glanced through the question and began to answer.
It is said that four children died in fire yesterday.
Even if he is not good at maths, he has a great gift for music.
1.European football is played in 80 countries, ____ it the most popular sport in the world.
A. making B. makes
C. made D. to make
2.____ a reply, he decided to write again.
A. Not receiving B. Receiving not
C. Not having received D. Having not received
3.The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with the talks, ____ that he had enjoyed his stay here.
A. having added B. to add
C. adding D. added
A. angrily pointing B. and point angrily
C. angrily pointed D. and angrilypointing
5. The murderer was brought in, with his hands ____ behind his back.
A. being tied B. having tied
C. to be tied D. tied
-ing slowly 分词做状语：
Be careful while/when crossing the road.
Seeing those pictures, she remembered her childhood.
==》When she saw …
②-ing slowly 分词短语作原因状语，
Not knowing his address, I can’t send this book to him.
Because I don’t know his address,…
Many of us, beingso excited, couldn’t go to sleep that night.
③–ing slowly 分词短语作结果状语。如：
His father died, leavinghim a lot of money.
She was so angry that she threw the toy on the ground, breakingit into pieces.
④-ing slowly 分词作伴随状语，可放于句首或句中。表示主语的另一个伴随的动作。如：
They stood there for half an hour watching the stars in the sky.
==》 They stood there for half an hour and watch the stars in the sky.
Following the old man, the young people started walking slowly.
⑤-ing slowly 分词间或也可作条件状语和让步状语
Standing at the foot of a high mountain，you will find himself very small.
Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage.
==》Although they knew all this , they made me pay for the damage.
_______ (look)out of the window, we can see a big tree.
____ (see)from the window, a big tree can be seen.
(2)V—ing slowly 所表示的动作与谓语表示的动作几乎同时发生。如果分词表示的动作发生在谓语所表示的动作之前，则用动词V—ing 形式的完成式（ having done）
eg. Writing the letter, he left out something important.
( while/when he was writing the letter)
Having written the letter, he read it carefully.
(After he had written the letter)
(3) slowly 否定式not的位置 (在分词的最前面加not)
Not knowing her address,we could not get in touch with her.
Not havingreceived an answer, he decided to write another letter to them.
⑥“ slowly with/without+n.+-ing”结构在句中作状语，表示伴随情况或时间、原因等。如：
His hair became grey withthe years passing.
With final-exams coming, he feels very nervous.
英语中习惯接 slowly -ing分词作宾语的常见动词：
避免 错过 少延期 avoidmissput off/postpone
建议 完成 多练习 suggestfinish practise
喜欢 想象 禁不住 enjoy imagine can’ help
承认 否定 与嫉妒admit deny envy
逃避 冒险 莫原谅 escape risk excuse
忍受 保持 不介意 stand keep mind、
常见的带介词 slowly to的短语，后接-ing或名词。
admit to承认contribute to捐助、贡献
get down to着手做give way to让位于
keep to 坚持、遵守lead to 导致
look forward to期待turn to 求助于
stick to坚持be equal to 胜任的、等于
point to指向、表明see to 注意、处理
be used to 习惯于devote oneself to 献身于
befamiliar to 为……熟悉
一些固定的 slowly -ing分词短语，如
Judging from his accent, he must come from Canada.
Considering how poor he was, we decided to let him attend the concert for free.
Choose the best answer: slowly
1.She is writing a letter to a friend of hers, ____him to the party.
A.Having invited B.inviting
C.to invite D.invited
2.____all my letters,I had a drink and went out.
A.Finished B.Having finished
C.Finishing D.To finish
3.___who she was,she said she was Mr.Johnson’s
C.To be asked D.When asking
A.Being B.To be
C.It is D.It being
5.____, your composition is full of mistakes.
B. Written carelessly
C.Having written carelessly
D.Being written carelessly
6.____several times,the young scientist still kept on making his experiments.
A. Having been failed B. Having failed
C. Though failed D. Because of failure
7.The food____ at the moment is for the dinner party.
A. cooked B. to be cooked
C. is being cooked D. being cooked
8.While building a tunnel through the mountain, ____. making his experiments.
A.an underground lake was discovered
B.there was an underground lake discovered
C.a lake was discovered underground.
D.the workers discovered an underground lake
9.Finding her car stolen, ____.
A.a policeman was asked to help
B.the area was searching thoroughly
C.it was looked for everywhere
D.she hurried to a policeman for help
10.She set out soon after dark ______home an hour later. making his experiments.
A.arriving B.to arrive
C.having arrived D.and arrived
11.____his key, he couldn’t enter the room.
A.Having been lost B.He had lost
C.Having lost D.Losing
12—Why do you stand and watch the milk___over?
---Oh, sorry. I was thinking of ___to the zoo.
A.boiling; taken B.boiled; taking
C.boiled; being taken D.boiling; being taken
8.To give up _____ means _____ . telegram?
A.smoking, stopping smoking
B.smoking, to stop smoking
C.to smoke, to stop to smoke
D.to smoke, stopping to smoke
9. — What do you think of the book? telegram?
— Oh, excellent. It’s worth _____ a second time.
A. to read B. reading
C. to be read D. being read
10. “What has made you so upset?” “________ my new bike.”
A. Lost B. Because of losing
C. Since I lost D. Losing
A. to take B. taking
C. having taking D. having been taken
12. Some foreigner used to ___ on the left in their own countries, but now they have got used to _____ on the right in our country.
A. driving, drive B. drive, drive
C. drive, driving D. driving, driving
24. ____ these pictures, I couldn’t help thinking of those days when I was in Beijing and ____ from the top of a thirty-storeyed building, Beijing looks more magnificent.
A. Seeing ; seen
B. Seen ; seeing
C. Seeing ; seeing
D. Seen ; seen
25. Mrs White was glad to see the nurse ____ after her son and her daughter and was also pleased to see children well ____ care of in the nursery.
A. looked ; taken
B. looking ; taken
C. looked ; took
D. looking ; taking
26. I was fortunate to pick up a wallet ____ on the ground on the way home, but unfortunately for me, I found my colour TV set ____ when I got home.
A. lying; stolen B. laying; stealing
C. lay; stolen D. lying; stealing
27. ____ better attention , the vegetables could have grown better with the sun shining brightly in the sky and ____ them light.
A. Giving; given B. Given; given
C. Giving; giving D. Given; giving