Chapter 6 a tour of the cell
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Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell. “Faith is a fine invention when gentlemen can see, but microscopes are prudent in an emergency.” Emily Dickinson. Question ?. Can cells be seen with the naked eye?. Light Microscope - LM. Light Microscope. Occular Lens. Objective Lens.

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Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell

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Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell


Faith is a fine invention when gentlemen can see, but microscopes are prudent in an emergency.Emily Dickinson


Question ?

  • Can cells be seen with the naked eye?


Light Microscope - LM


Light Microscope

Occular Lens

Objective Lens

Stage with specimen

Light Source


Magnification


Resolution


Limitations - LM


Electron Microscopes


TEM

SEM


Advantages


Disadvantages


Transmission Electron Microscope - TEM


TEM Limitations


Scanning Electron Microscope - SEM

  • Excellent views of surfaces.

  • Produces 3-D views.

  • Live specimens possible.


Limitations

  • Lower magnifications than the TEM.


Cell Biology or Cytology

  • Cyto = cell - ology = study of

  • Should use observations from several types of microscopes to make a total picture of how a cell is put together.


Other Tools for Cytology


Cell Fractionation


Cell Fractionation


Chromatography


Electrophoresis


History of Cells


History of Cells

  • 1833 - Robert Brown, discovered the nucleus.

  • 1838 - M.J. Schleiden, all plants are made of cells.

  • 1839 - T. Schwann, all animals are made of cells.

  • 1840 - J.E. Purkinje, coined the term protoplasm.


Cell Theory


R. Virchow


Types of Cells

  • Prokaryotic

  • Eukaryotic -.


Both Have:


Prokaryotic

Eukaryotic

Nucleus


Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic


Why Are Cells So Small?


Basic Cell Organization


AnimalCell


Plant Cell


Membrane


Cytoplasm or Cytosol


Organelle


Organelles - function


You must be able to:


Nucleus


Structure


Nuclear Membrane


Nuclear Pores


Nucleolus


Chromatin

  • Chrom: colored

  • - tin: threads


Nucleus - Function


Ribosomes


Subunits


Locations

  • Free in the cytoplasm -.

  • Membrane bound -


Endomembrane System


Endomembrane System


Endoplasmic Reticulum


Structure of ER


Types of ER

  • Smooth ER:

  • Rough ER:


Golgi Apparatus


Structure Has 2 Faces

  • Cis face

  • Transface -


Function of Golgi Bodies


Golgi Vesicles


Lysosome


Function


Lysosomes


Vacuoles


Protists


Plants


Function


Function: Plant vacuole


Microbodies

  • Peroxisomes:

  • Glyoxysomes:


Enzymes in a crystal


Mitochondria

  • .


Inner Membrane


Function


Mitochondria


Chloroplasts


Inner or Thylakoid Membranes


Function


Chloroplasts


Plastids


Examples

  • Amyloplasts/ Leucoplasts

  • Chromoplasts -


Ergastic Materials


Cytoskeleton


Functions


Components


Intermed.

  • MicrotubulesMicrofilamentFilaments

  • Hollow Solid Cables

  • Tubulin Actin (Keratin)

  • Dynein

  • Cilia/Flagella Muscle Anchors

    Contraction Organelles

    Cell Division


Microtubules


Tubulin

  • .


Microtubules


Microtubules


Cilia and Flagella


Cilia and Flagella


Dynein Protein


Centrioles


Basal Bodies


Basal Body


MTOCs


Microfilaments


Microfilaments are stained green.


Functions


Intermediate Filaments


Functions


Cytoskeleton


Cell Wall


Plant Cell Walls


Primary Wall


Secondary Wall


Middle Lamella


Cell Walls

  • .


Extracellular Matrix - ECM


Intercellular Juctions


Plasmodesmata


Intercellular Juctions


Tight Junctions


Desmosomes


Gap Junctions


Summary

  • Answer: Why is Life cellular and what are the factors that affect cell size?

  • Be able to identify cellular parts, their structure, and their functions.


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