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Issues in Terrain Visualization for Environmental Monitoring Applications. Ricardo Veguilla [email protected] Nayda G. Santiago [email protected] Domingo A. Rodriguez [email protected] Electrical and Computer Engineering Department

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Issues in terrain visualization for environmental monitoring applications

Issues in Terrain Visualization for Environmental Monitoring Applications

Ricardo Veguilla [email protected]

Nayda G. Santiago [email protected]

Domingo A. Rodriguez [email protected]

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department

University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus

June 23, 2006


Raw Data Applications


Computed Data



WALSAIP: Wide Area Large Scale Automated Information Processing


Data Representation


Computational Signal

Processing Systems

Signal Data


Information Rendering


Signal Conditioning


Sensor Array


Pre-processing Stage

Processing Stage

Post-processing Stage

Walsaip vte visual terrain explorer
WALSAIP-VTE (Visual Terrain Explorer) Applications



Information Rendering System


Automated Data


Data Acquisition

Data size complexity and performance
Data size, complexity, and performance Applications

  • 3D visualization is computationally expensive

  • We want to visualize large, complex geometrical models

  • Critical for interactive terrain visualization due to the sheer size of the data sets

Level of Detail Applications

Level of detail lod
Level of Detail (LOD) Applications

  • Premise: It is inefficient to use many polygons to render object that will only contribute to a few pixels of the rendered scene.

  • Conclusion: Use less detail for small, distant portions of the scene.

  • Approach: Use geometric simplification operations to eliminate redundant information while satisfying both performance and visual accuracy constrains.

Our goal
Our Goal Applications

Review available terrain rendering LOD techniques, with interested in:

  • How to exploit video card (GPU) processing capabilities

  • Handling data larger than available memory (out of core, distributed computing)

  • Identify best approach for a future implementation of the VTE

Basic components
Basic Components Applications

  • The initial mesh: A polygonal representation of the terrain at either the minimum resolution level (base mesh) or the maximum resolution level (full mesh)

  • Updates operations: Operation which simplify or refine a mesh.

Characteristics of lod algorithms
Characteristics of LOD Algorithms Applications

  • LOD Granularity

  • LOD Distribution

  • Processing direction

  • Terrain Data Structure

  • LOD Data Structure

Lod granularity

76 polys Applications

2,502 polys

69,451 polys

251 polys

LOD granularity

  • Discrete LOD: finite set of pre-computed LODs

  • Continuous LOD: further simplifies discrete LODs to produce a continuous spectrum of detail

251 polys

69,451 polys

N polys

Lod distribution
LOD distribution Applications

  • Uniform

  • View-dependent

Processing direction
Processing direction Applications

Top-down (refinement or subdivision algorithm)

Bottom-up (simplification or decimation algorithm)

Terrain data structure
Terrain data structure Applications

Height fields


Triangulated Irregular Networks


Lod data structure
LOD data structure Applications

Quadtree: a rectangular region recursively subdivided into four uniform quadrants.

Bintree (Binary triangle tree) : a rectangular region is recursively subdivided into two triangles.

Survey of Algorithms Applications

Approaches Applications

  • Traditional Approach

    • 80’s

    • The basic unit is the triangle

    • Traditional LOD techniques generally aimed to produce the ideal level of detail

  • Modern Approach

    • 2000’s

    • Basic unit is the triangle cluster or patch

    • Concerned with maximizing GPU usage and minimizing CPU usage

Traditional Approach Applications

Real time continuous lod rendering of height fields
Real-time, continuous LOD rendering of height fields Applications

  • Using a quadtree with discrete LODS generated off-line

top-down refinement

bottom-up simplification

ROAM Applications

  • Uses two ordered priority queues: one for split operations and the other for merge operations.

View dependent progressive meshes
View-dependent Progressive Meshes Applications

  • a TIN-based, view dependent terrain LOD algorithm

  • Continuous LOD is produce by recursively removing triangles from off-line generated blocks of terrain.

Modern Approach Applications

Geometrical mipmapping
Geometrical MipMapping Applications

Quadtree technique that work on blocks of uniform detail

Simplification based on vertex removal

Selection based on worst-case view parameters

Eliminates cracks by changing vertex connectivity at the block boundary

Triangle cluster techniques
Triangle cluster Techniques Applications

  • Cluster: small triangle meshes optimized for GPU processing

  • Cluster are cached on the video card memory.

  • Hierarchy is used for view culling


Frustrum Occluded Cluster

Inactive Cluster

Visible Cluster

Occluded Cluster

ACL = Active Cluster List

Geometry clipmap
Geometry Clipmap Applications

A multi-resolution mesh formed by combining nested concentric grids center about the view position

Resulting view

View culling

Conclusions Applications

  • In Use of triangle cluster patches as basic rendering unit allow:

    • maximizing GPU usage*

    • better coupling of the geometry and the texture

    • out-of-core operation*

    • The ideal level of detail (an irregular mesh) is in compatible with GPU maximization (which require regular meshes)

*points of interest for the WALSAIP-VTE project

Lod and walsaip
LOD and WALSAIP Applications



Automated Terrain

LOD Generation

Terrain Visualization

Terrain Data


Walsaip vte status
WALSAIP-VTE - Status Applications

  • Java and OpenGL implementation with LOD based on GeoMipMaps.

  • Future research on out-of-core data management for remote data acquisition

References Applications

  • Clark, J. H. (1976). “Hierarchical geometric models for visible surface algorithms”. Commun. ACM Vol. 19, No. 10, pp 547-554.

  • Luebke, D., Reddy, M., Cohen, J., Varshney, A., Watson, B., and Huebner, R. (2003). Level of Detail for 3D Graphics, Morgan-Kaufmann, Los Altos, CA.

  • Fowler, R. J. and Little, J. J. 1979. (1979). “Automatic extraction of Irregular Network digital terrain models”. Proceedings of the 6th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. SIGGRAPH '79. ACM Press, New York, NY, pp 199-207.

  • Samet, H. (1984). “The Quadtree and Related Hierarchical Data Structures”. ACM Comput. Surv. Vol. 16, No. 2, pp 187-260.

  • Puppo, E.(1998), “Variable resolution triangulations”, Computational Geometry, Vol. 11, No. 3-4, pp.219-238.

  • Leclerc, Y. G. and Lau, S. Q. (1995). “TerraVision: A Terrain Visualization System”, Technical Note 540. AI Center, SRI International, 02/15/2006

  • Reddy,M., Leclerc,Y., Iverson,L., and Bletter, N. (1998) "TerraVision II: Visualizing Massive Terrain Databases in VRML," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol.19, No.2, pp. 30-38.

  • Williams, L. (1983). “Pyramidal parametrics”. Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and interactive Techniques SIGGRAPH '83. ACM Press, New York, NY, 1-11.

  • Zach, C., Mantler, S., and Karner, K. (2002). “Time-critical rendering of discrete and continuous levels of detail”. VRST ’02: Proceedings of the ACM symposium on Virtual reality software and technology, pp. 1–8.

  • X. Bao and R. Pajarola, (2003) “Lod-based clustering techniques for efficient large-scale terrain storage and visualization,” Proceedings of the SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Vol. 5009, pp. 225–35.

  • Lindstrom, P., Koller, D., Ribarsky, W., Hodges, L. F., Faust, N., and Turner, G. A. (1996). “Real-time, continuous level of detail rendering of height fields”. In Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and interactive Techniques SIGGRAPH '96. ACM Press, New York, NY, 109-118.

  • Röttger, S., Heidrich, W., Slussallek, P., and Seidel, H. P. (1998) “Real-Time Generation of Continuous Levels of Detail for Height Fields”. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics and Visualization, 315--322.

  • Duchaineau, M., Wolinsky, M., Sigeti, D. E., Miller, M. C., Aldrich, C., and Mineev-Weinstein, M. B. (1997). “ROAMing terrain: real-time optimally adapting meshes”. Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Visualization '97. R. Yagel and H. Hagen, Eds. IEEE Visualization. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, 81-88

References cont
References (Cont) Applications

  • Hoppe, H. (1996). “Progressive meshes”. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and interactive Techniques SIGGRAPH '96. ACM Press, New York, NY, 99-108.

  • Hoppe, H. (1997). “View-dependent refinement of progressive meshes”. Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and interactive Techniques International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., New York, NY, pp. 189-198.

  • Hoppe, H. (1998). “Smooth view-dependent level-of-detail control and its application to terrain rendering”. Proceedings of the Conference on Visualization '98. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, pp 35-42.

  • De Boer, W. H., (2000). “Fast terrain rendering using geometrical mipmapping”. 02/15/2006

  • Brodersen, A. (2005). “Real-time visualization of large textured terrains,” GRAPHITE ’05: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques in Australasia and SouthEast Asia, pp. 439–442.

  • Cignoni, P., Ganovelli, F., Gobbetti, E., Marton, F., Ponchio, F., and Scopigno, R. (2003). “BDAM - batched dynamic adaptive meshes for high performance terrain visualization,” Computer Graphics Forum, Vol. 22 No. 3 pp505-514.

  • Levenberg, J. (2002) “Fast view-dependent level-of-detail rendering using cached geometry”. VIS ’02: Proceedings of the conference on Visualization ’02.

  • Yoon, S., Salomon, B., Gayle, R., and Manocha, D. (2005). "Quick-VDR: Out-of-Core View-Dependent Rendering of Gigantic Models," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 369-382.

  • Zhu. Y (2005), “Uniform Remeshing with an Adaptive Domain: A New Scheme for View-Dependent Level-of-Detail Rendering of Meshes”. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 306-316.

  • Cohen, J., Luebke, D., Duca, N., and Schubert, B. (2003) “GLOD: A geometric level of detail system at the OpenGL API level,” VIS ’03: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Visualization 2003 (VIS’03), pp. 85.

  • Losasso, F. and Hoppe, H. (2004). “Geometry clipmaps: terrain rendering using nested regular grids”. ACM Trans. Graph. Vol. 23, No. 3 , pp. 769-776.

  • Schneider J., and Westermann, R. (2006) “Gpu-friendly high-quality terrain rendering,” Journal of WSCG, Vol. 14, No. 1-3, pp. 49–56.

Questions? Applications