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The Future of Food in Oregon . Ken Meter Crossroads Resource Center (Minneapolis). Oregon Food Bank Network Meeting Portland April 24, 2008. Financial partners:. Oregon Food Bank The Holland / Burgerville University of Minnesota Experiment in Rural Cooperation (SE Minnesota)

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The Future of

Food in Oregon

Ken Meter

Crossroads Resource Center (Minneapolis)

Oregon Food Bank

Network Meeting

Portland

April 24, 2008


Financial partners:

  • Oregon Food Bank

  • The Holland / Burgerville

  • University of Minnesota

  • Experiment in Rural Cooperation (SE Minnesota)

  • Northwest & West Central Minnesota Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships

  • Food Systems Working Group (Value Chain Partnerships project) — Aldo Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture at Iowa State University

  • University of Wisconsin Extension

  • Northern Arizona University — Ctr Environmental Studies

  • W. K. Kellogg Foundation (Michigan)

  • Community Alliance with Family Farms (California)

  • Appalachian Sustainable Agriculture Program (NC)

  • University of Hawaii — Manoa

  • FarmAid

  • Northwest Area Foundation

  • ALCES Foundation(Massachusetts)

  • Washington State University

  • Roots of Change (San Francisco)

  • Manitoba Food Charter (Winnipeg)


“Finding Food in Farm Country” Studies

plus Maui & Hawai’i

35 regions — 17 states


Local Farm & Food Economies

The perspectives of the communities where commodities are

produced and

used...

…are often overlooked


Vision for local food economies

Build:

Health

Wealth

Connection

Capacity


Clark County, Washington

Source: 2000 Census



Poverty

31,027

School Lunch

73,062

(21%)

Source: 2000 Census


Clark County

Four of every five farms is

less than 50 acres

Source: Ag Census


Clark County rankings in state

  • 2nd in broiler chicken inventory (662,000)

  • 3rd in sheep & goat sales ($253,000)

  • 4th in acres of berries grown (1,389)

  • 4th in Christmas tree acreage (1,057)

  • 6th in sales of Christmas trees

  • ($1.3 million)

  • 6th in poultry sales ($7 million)

Source: Ag Census


Farm Production Balance in Clark County, Washington, 1969- 2005

Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)


Farm Production Balance in Clark County, Washington, 1969- 2005

Costs reduced since 1987

One great year

little improvement since 1985

$4.7 million lost over last 11 years

Source: BEA


Clark County 2005

  • County farmers sell

  • $58million of crops & livestock per year (11-year average 1995-2005)

And…

  • Spend $59 million to produce them

Source: BEA


Clark County 2005

  • Lose $400,000 in production costs

  • (average loss per year since 1995)

Source: BEA



Clark County 2005

67% of county’s

farms reported

net losses in 2002

Source: Ag Census


Clark County Farms 2005

Dairy & livestock decline

Fruit orchards decline

Farmers raise nursery plants

Farms sold to developers

Number of consumers increases


$30 million 2005 of farm inputs are purchased from outside the county each year.

Source: Ken Meter using data from Ag Census


Clark County food businesses 2005

All told…

$ 2,302 million sales

22,870 jobs

1,667 firms

Source: Dun & Bradstreet (2007) and

U.S. Economic Census (2002) — understates actual


Clark County consumers spend $807 million on food each year 2005

To eat at home: $ 449 million

To eat out: $ 358 million

  • $700 million fromoutside county

Source: Census & BLS


All told, Clark County... 2005

  • Loses $400,000 in production, &

  • Buys $30 million of outside inputs

  • Buys $700 million of outside food

Potential wealth lost each year


Total loss to Clark County is: 2005

  • $730 millioneach year!

  • 12 times the valueof all products produced in the county

  • 91% of the value of all food consumed in the county


Columbia Gorge 2005

Partner: Gorge Grown Network


Columbia Gorge 2005

Partner: Gorge Grown Network


Columbia Gorge 2005

  • Orchards export to:

  • Mexico

  • Columbia

  • India

  • Russia


Columbia Gorge 2005

Hood River Valley:

Respected producer of organic fruits for juice


$124 million less than 1969 2005

$750 million loss since 1990


Ten Rivers region 2005

Partners: Ten Rivers Food Web, OSU, Ecumenical Ministries of Oregon, NWAF


Ten Rivers region 2005

Map: OSU Extension


Ten Rivers region 2005

Partners: Ten Rivers Food Web, OSU, Ecumenical Ministries of Oregon, NWAF


City of Corvallis — Household Income Levels 2005

Poverty

9,166

School Lunch

15,537

(35%)

Source: 2000 Census


Ten Rivers Food Web 2005

Linn County:

First in U.S. in grass & seed acreage (2002)

184,000 acres —

48% of harvested land

$85 million of grass and hay sold (56% of county farm sales)




Ten Rivers 2005

67% of region’s

farms reported

net losses in 2002

Source: Ag Census



Oregon 2005


$560 million less than 1969 2005

$2.2 billion lost since 1982


U.S. data 2005


Farm Production Balance in U.S., 1969- 2001 2005

$40 billion less than 1969

Source: BEA


Change in Farm Production Balance, 1969 - 2002 2005

Map by Ken Meter, 2005

Source: BEA


Wall Street Journal: 2005 US is becoming net food importer

Source: Adamy, WSJ, January 31, 2005


U.S. agri-trade balance 2005

1976

1986

1996

Source: USDA/ERS and Census Bureau


Food sales are concentrated 2005

  • 49% of groceries sold by 5 chains

  • Wal-Mart & Sam’s Club are top 2

  • 85% of food industries lack competitiveness

Source: Feedstuffs; Lopez, Azzam, & Lirón-España; Heffernan, et al


Food industry is concentrated 2005

  • Farms got bigger despite economies of size

  • Expansion of food industry had little to do with efficiency

  • Wal-Mart profitability declines as it gets larger

Sources: several academic studies (Madden, Miller, Hallam etc); FTC/Parker, Greenwald & Kahn in Harvard Business Review


Lending is concentrated 2005

The average U.S. bank is 1,000 times the “most efficient” size

Source: Dymski


Consumption out of balance 2005

  • 50% of U.S. public school students qualify for free / reduced lunch

  • 10% of households are “food insecure”

Source: USDA

Mural: The Food Project


Consumption out of balance 2005

  • Over half of all adults overweight

  • Half of elderly seeking medical care are undernourished

Sources: Flegal, Wellman. Mural: The Food Project


Health suffers 2005

  • Diet-related diseases cause half of all deaths in industrial world

  • Change in diet could prevent 30% of cancer worldwide

Source: Worldwatch/Gardner & Halweil


Health suffers 2005

  • 5,000 deaths due to food poisoning each year in U.S.

Sources: CDC/Walters


Health suffers 2005

Medical costs of obesity are $118 billion per year —

14% of what U.S. consumers pay for food

Half of what farmers earn selling commodities!

Source: CDC/Walters, Harvard Public Health/Colditz



Corn sweeteners consumed in U.S., 1966-2002 all subsidies

HFCS

Pounds per capita

Source: USDA/ERS — chart by Ken Meter, 2006


U s youth who are overweight percent by age
U.S. Youth Who are Overweight all subsidiesPercent by Age

>95th percentile for BMI by age and sex, based on NHANES I reference data

Source: Troiano RP, Flegal KM. Pediatrics 1998;101(3):497-504. NHANES 1999, National Center for Health Statistics. Chart by Melinda Hemmelgarn


Value Chain all subsidies

Food Service

Producer

Processor

Distributor

Retailer

Consumer


$ billions (2004) all subsidies

41%

20%

Source ERS; chart by Ken Meter, 2007


Policy Council all subsidies

Non Profits

Consumer:

“Coproducer”

Producer

Processor

Retailer

Educator

Distributor

Food Service

Value Network



Innovative farm operations all subsidies

Winter CSA

Milan, Minnesota

Fresh fresh organic greens

November to April

Sells only within 30 miles




Innovative farm operations all subsidies

Student farm at St. Olaf college

Raises food for campus food service

$40,000 sales/acre


Innovative farm operations all subsidies

Commercial farm in Georgia

Raises produce for farmers market,

members and restaurants

$320,000 sales/4.5 acres


Innovative farm operations all subsidies

“Bushel Boy” Tomatoes

Most of Twin Cities’ market

for high-end tomatoes

(after 20 years)

Year-round hydroponic production

20 acres of greenhouse

80 full-time employees


Innovative food initiatives all subsidies

Grinnell College (Iowa)

Trying to source local foods, discovers need for warehouse

Community making same plans

Explore joint

campus-community facility


Innovative food initiatives all subsidies

Emory University (Atlanta)

Goal: 75% of all food sustainable

and local by 2015

“Local” means Georgia

Then surrounding states



UNI Local Food Project all subsidies

1998

3 institutions

buy $111,000 of local foods

2007

25 buy $2,200,000


Local Food Expenditures all subsidiesby the participating institutions in theBlack Hawk County Area, Iowa 1997-2007

Northern Iowa Food & Farm Partnership


Jobs fruit veggies and black hawk county region
Jobs, Fruit & Veggies, and all subsidiesBlack Hawk County region

If Black Hawk region residents purchased locally grown fruits and vegetables just 3 months out of the year:

  • 475 new jobs

  • $6.3 million in labor income

    added to local economy

    David Swenson, ISU Economist


Rudy’s Tacos — Waterloo, Iowa all subsidies

72% local food!

Photo by Arion Thiboumery


Northeast Iowa all subsidies

Farm & Food Coalition


NE Iowa Farm and Food Coalition all subsidies

  • Farmers

  • Lenders

  • Extension Agents

  • Main Street Businesses

  • Technical experts

  • Consumers

  • Schools and Hospitals


Northeast Iowa all subsidies

  • Five commodity groups meet together!

  • Then meet with lenders & chamber

  • Strategy: form local brokerage & value-added processing


Northeast Iowa all subsidies

  • Oneota Food Coop is core firm

  • Second-largest employer on Main Street (after bank)

  • Growth: 22%

  • $400,000 local food sales (20%)


Northeast Iowa all subsidies

Successes

  • Farm groups broaden vision

  • Strategic plan for local foods

  • Respectful collaboration

  • Mobilize local expertise


Northeast Iowa all subsidies

Challenges

  • This is difficult work!

  • Food systems are complex

  • May require outside investment


NE Iowa Food & Fitness all subsidies

  • Working together to eat well

    • and exercise better


Woodbury County, Iowa all subsidies


Woodbury County, Iowa all subsidies

1. County commits to buying local, organic food when available at comparable prices


Woodbury County, Iowa all subsidies

2. County offers property tax break for farmers converting to organic production


Woodbury County, Iowa all subsidies

3. County assists growers cooperative to form and to sell organic food


Woodbury County, Iowa all subsidies

4. County opens commercial food kitchen


Woodbury County, Iowa all subsidies

5. County sponsors salsa competition

Winning recipe now produced under “Sioux City Sue” label


Woodbury County, Iowa all subsidies


Woodbury County, Iowa all subsidies

6. County frames

“homestead” policy —

town of Danbury donates land for new organic farms


Source: Leopold Center all subsidies


Regional Food System all subsidies

Planning Guide

www.rfswg.org

Source: Leopold Center


Missouri Farmers Union all subsidies

Farmers buy supermarket

in St. Louis

Sappington Farmers Market

Form cooperative brokerage selling members’ produce

Source: Randy Wook, Missouri Farmers Union




New York City all subsidies

$1 billion produce warehouse planned

in Bronx


Direct Food Sales all subsidies


Federation of Southern Coops all subsidies

35 years of coop organizing

30,000 member families

75 coops & credit unions

$26 million in personal savings

$80 million food sales

$500 million impact


Organic Sales all subsidies


Organic Valley all subsidies

20 years of coop organizing

1,183 farmer members

$480 million sales (2007)

milk/soy milk, cheese, orange juice, produce, meats, eggs

Source: Organic Valley


Organic Valley all subsidies


$ millions all subsidies

Source: Organic Valley


We are building local food systems all subsidies

for the first time

In past we built

infrastructure for exports

Never planned for

sustainable regional foods


Elements of Success all subsidies

for Local Food Systems

Flexibility makes it work

in Twin Cities

Large brokers carry

shipments for small


Elements of Success all subsidies

for Local Food Systems

Flexibility makes it work

in Minnesota

Scott Pampuch, Corner Table

“Get away from salesman mentality.

Know your producer”


Elements of Success all subsidies

for Local Food Systems

Flexibility makes it work

in Minneapolis

Coastal Seafoods

“It’s all about relationships.”


Elements of Success all subsidies

for Local Food Systems

Disconnect in Market

Pepin Heights Orchards

“We sell quality.

Buyers care about price.”


Elements of Success all subsidies

for Local Food Systems

From: “All the same

and predictable”

To: “We know

producer’s quality,

and we cope with uncertainty”


Elements of Success all subsidies

for Local Food Systems

Small firms & coops lead the way

Medium make larger impact

Large firms follow (or buy)


Local foods may be your all subsidies

strongest path toward

community economic development


BEA all subsidies


BEA all subsidies


Issues in housing development all subsidies

30% of ALL loans made in U.S. metro areas were subprime (2006)

Source: Wall Street Journal, October 11, 2007


Issues in housing development all subsidies

Costs of services required for new housing developments

often exceed

tax base generated

Source: American Farmland Trust


Vision for local food economies all subsidies

Build:

Health

Wealth

Connection

Capacity


Food (& Land) Bill all subsidies

Not just a Farm Bill


Invest in all subsidies communities

rather than cash for commodities


“Finding Food in Farm Country” all subsidies

www.crcworks.org/econ.html

(612) 869-8664

[email protected]


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