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Ken Meter Crossroads Resource Center (Minneapolis) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The Future of Food in Oregon . Ken Meter Crossroads Resource Center (Minneapolis). Oregon Food Bank Network Meeting Portland April 24, 2008. Financial partners:. Oregon Food Bank The Holland / Burgerville University of Minnesota Experiment in Rural Cooperation (SE Minnesota)

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Ken Meter Crossroads Resource Center (Minneapolis)

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The Future of

Food in Oregon

Ken Meter

Crossroads Resource Center (Minneapolis)

Oregon Food Bank

Network Meeting


April 24, 2008

Financial partners:

  • Oregon Food Bank

  • The Holland / Burgerville

  • University of Minnesota

  • Experiment in Rural Cooperation (SE Minnesota)

  • Northwest & West Central Minnesota Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships

  • Food Systems Working Group (Value Chain Partnerships project) — Aldo Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture at Iowa State University

  • University of Wisconsin Extension

  • Northern Arizona University — Ctr Environmental Studies

  • W. K. Kellogg Foundation (Michigan)

  • Community Alliance with Family Farms (California)

  • Appalachian Sustainable Agriculture Program (NC)

  • University of Hawaii — Manoa

  • FarmAid

  • Northwest Area Foundation

  • ALCES Foundation(Massachusetts)

  • Washington State University

  • Roots of Change (San Francisco)

  • Manitoba Food Charter (Winnipeg)

“Finding Food in Farm Country” Studies

plus Maui & Hawai’i

35 regions — 17 states

Local Farm & Food Economies

The perspectives of the communities where commodities are

produced and


…are often overlooked

Vision for local food economies






Clark County, Washington

Source: 2000 Census

Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)



School Lunch



Source: 2000 Census

Clark County

Four of every five farms is

less than 50 acres

Source: Ag Census

Clark County rankings in state

  • 2nd in broiler chicken inventory (662,000)

  • 3rd in sheep & goat sales ($253,000)

  • 4th in acres of berries grown (1,389)

  • 4th in Christmas tree acreage (1,057)

  • 6th in sales of Christmas trees

  • ($1.3 million)

  • 6th in poultry sales ($7 million)

Source: Ag Census

Farm Production Balance in Clark County, Washington, 1969- 2005

Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)

Farm Production Balance in Clark County, Washington, 1969- 2005

Costs reduced since 1987

One great year

little improvement since 1985

$4.7 million lost over last 11 years

Source: BEA

Clark County

  • County farmers sell

  • $58million of crops & livestock per year (11-year average 1995-2005)


  • Spend $59 million to produce them

Source: BEA

Clark County

  • Lose $400,000 in production costs

  • (average loss per year since 1995)

Source: BEA

Crop & livestock sales in Clark County, Washington, 1969- 2005

Source: BEA

Clark County

67% of county’s

farms reported

net losses in 2002

Source: Ag Census

Clark County Farms

Dairy & livestock decline

Fruit orchards decline

Farmers raise nursery plants

Farms sold to developers

Number of consumers increases

$30 million of farm inputs are purchased from outside the county each year.

Source: Ken Meter using data from Ag Census

Clark County food businesses

All told…

$ 2,302 million sales

22,870 jobs

1,667 firms

Source: Dun & Bradstreet (2007) and

U.S. Economic Census (2002) — understates actual

Clark County consumers spend $807 million on food each year

To eat at home: $ 449 million

To eat out: $ 358 million

  • $700 million fromoutside county

Source: Census & BLS

All told, Clark County...

  • Loses $400,000 in production, &

  • Buys $30 million of outside inputs

  • Buys $700 million of outside food

Potential wealth lost each year

Total loss to Clark County is:

  • $730 millioneach year!

  • 12 times the valueof all products produced in the county

  • 91% of the value of all food consumed in the county

Columbia Gorge

Partner: Gorge Grown Network

Columbia Gorge

Partner: Gorge Grown Network

Columbia Gorge

  • Orchards export to:

  • Mexico

  • Columbia

  • India

  • Russia

Columbia Gorge

Hood River Valley:

Respected producer of organic fruits for juice

$124 million less than 1969

$750 million loss since 1990

Ten Rivers region

Partners: Ten Rivers Food Web, OSU, Ecumenical Ministries of Oregon, NWAF

Ten Rivers region

Map: OSU Extension

Ten Rivers region

Partners: Ten Rivers Food Web, OSU, Ecumenical Ministries of Oregon, NWAF

City of Corvallis — Household Income Levels



School Lunch



Source: 2000 Census

Ten Rivers Food Web

Linn County:

First in U.S. in grass & seed acreage (2002)

184,000 acres —

48% of harvested land

$85 million of grass and hay sold (56% of county farm sales)

Benton & Linn Counties

Crop & livestock sales in Ten Rivers region, 1969 - 2004

Ten Rivers

67% of region’s

farms reported

net losses in 2002

Source: Ag Census

Portland Metro area


$560 million less than 1969

$2.2 billion lost since 1982

U.S. data

Farm Production Balance in U.S., 1969- 2001

$40 billion less than 1969

Source: BEA

Change in Farm Production Balance, 1969 - 2002

Map by Ken Meter, 2005

Source: BEA

Wall Street Journal: US is becoming net food importer

Source: Adamy, WSJ, January 31, 2005

U.S. agri-trade balance




Source: USDA/ERS and Census Bureau

Food sales are concentrated

  • 49% of groceries sold by 5 chains

  • Wal-Mart & Sam’s Club are top 2

  • 85% of food industries lack competitiveness

Source: Feedstuffs; Lopez, Azzam, & Lirón-España; Heffernan, et al

Food industry is concentrated

  • Farms got bigger despite economies of size

  • Expansion of food industry had little to do with efficiency

  • Wal-Mart profitability declines as it gets larger

Sources: several academic studies (Madden, Miller, Hallam etc); FTC/Parker, Greenwald & Kahn in Harvard Business Review

Lending is concentrated

The average U.S. bank is 1,000 times the “most efficient” size

Source: Dymski

Consumption out of balance

  • 50% of U.S. public school students qualify for free / reduced lunch

  • 10% of households are “food insecure”

Source: USDA

Mural: The Food Project

Consumption out of balance

  • Over half of all adults overweight

  • Half of elderly seeking medical care are undernourished

Sources: Flegal, Wellman. Mural: The Food Project

Health suffers

  • Diet-related diseases cause half of all deaths in industrial world

  • Change in diet could prevent 30% of cancer worldwide

Source: Worldwatch/Gardner & Halweil

Health suffers

  • 5,000 deaths due to food poisoning each year in U.S.

Sources: CDC/Walters

Health suffers

Medical costs of obesity are $118 billion per year —

14% of what U.S. consumers pay for food

Half of what farmers earn selling commodities!

Source: CDC/Walters, Harvard Public Health/Colditz

$600 billion more paid by farmer interest payments — than all subsidies

Corn sweeteners consumed in U.S., 1966-2002


Pounds per capita

Source: USDA/ERS — chart by Ken Meter, 2006

U.S. Youth Who are OverweightPercent by Age

>95th percentile for BMI by age and sex, based on NHANES I reference data

Source: Troiano RP, Flegal KM. Pediatrics 1998;101(3):497-504. NHANES 1999, National Center for Health Statistics. Chart by Melinda Hemmelgarn

Value Chain

Food Service






$ billions (2004)



Source ERS; chart by Ken Meter, 2007

Policy Council

Non Profits








Food Service

Value Network

What are people doing about this?

Innovative farm operations

Winter CSA

Milan, Minnesota

Fresh fresh organic greens

November to April

Sells only within 30 miles

Winter CSA — Milan, Minnesota

Winter CSA — Milan, Minnesota

Innovative farm operations

Student farm at St. Olaf college

Raises food for campus food service

$40,000 sales/acre

Innovative farm operations

Commercial farm in Georgia

Raises produce for farmers market,

members and restaurants

$320,000 sales/4.5 acres

Innovative farm operations

“Bushel Boy” Tomatoes

Most of Twin Cities’ market

for high-end tomatoes

(after 20 years)

Year-round hydroponic production

20 acres of greenhouse

80 full-time employees

Innovative food initiatives

Grinnell College (Iowa)

Trying to source local foods, discovers need for warehouse

Community making same plans

Explore joint

campus-community facility

Innovative food initiatives

Emory University (Atlanta)

Goal: 75% of all food sustainable

and local by 2015

“Local” means Georgia

Then surrounding states

Black Hawk region, Iowa

UNI Local Food Project


3 institutions

buy $111,000 of local foods


25 buy $2,200,000

Local Food Expendituresby the participating institutions in theBlack Hawk County Area, Iowa 1997-2007

Northern Iowa Food & Farm Partnership

Jobs, Fruit & Veggies, and Black Hawk County region

If Black Hawk region residents purchased locally grown fruits and vegetables just 3 months out of the year:

  • 475 new jobs

  • $6.3 million in labor income

    added to local economy

    David Swenson, ISU Economist

Rudy’s Tacos — Waterloo, Iowa

72% local food!

Photo by Arion Thiboumery

Northeast Iowa

Farm & Food Coalition

NE Iowa Farm and Food Coalition

  • Farmers

  • Lenders

  • Extension Agents

  • Main Street Businesses

  • Technical experts

  • Consumers

  • Schools and Hospitals

Northeast Iowa

  • Five commodity groups meet together!

  • Then meet with lenders & chamber

  • Strategy: form local brokerage & value-added processing

Northeast Iowa

  • Oneota Food Coop is core firm

  • Second-largest employer on Main Street (after bank)

  • Growth: 22%

  • $400,000 local food sales (20%)

Northeast Iowa


  • Farm groups broaden vision

  • Strategic plan for local foods

  • Respectful collaboration

  • Mobilize local expertise

Northeast Iowa


  • This is difficult work!

  • Food systems are complex

  • May require outside investment

NE Iowa Food & Fitness

  • Working together to eat well

    • and exercise better

Woodbury County, Iowa

Woodbury County, Iowa

1. County commits to buying local, organic food when available at comparable prices

Woodbury County, Iowa

2. County offers property tax break for farmers converting to organic production

Woodbury County, Iowa

3. County assists growers cooperative to form and to sell organic food

Woodbury County, Iowa

4. County opens commercial food kitchen

Woodbury County, Iowa

5. County sponsors salsa competition

Winning recipe now produced under “Sioux City Sue” label

Woodbury County, Iowa

Woodbury County, Iowa

6. County frames

“homestead” policy —

town of Danbury donates land for new organic farms

Source: Leopold Center

Regional Food System

Planning Guide

Source: Leopold Center

Missouri Farmers Union

Farmers buy supermarket

in St. Louis

Sappington Farmers Market

Form cooperative brokerage selling members’ produce

Source: Randy Wook, Missouri Farmers Union

Will Allen, Growing Power, Milwaukee

Growing Power, Milwaukee

New York City

$1 billion produce warehouse planned

in Bronx

Direct Food Sales

Federation of Southern Coops

35 years of coop organizing

30,000 member families

75 coops & credit unions

$26 million in personal savings

$80 million food sales

$500 million impact

Organic Sales

Organic Valley

20 years of coop organizing

1,183 farmer members

$480 million sales (2007)

milk/soy milk, cheese, orange juice, produce, meats, eggs

Source: Organic Valley

Organic Valley

$ millions

Source: Organic Valley

We are building local food systems

for the first time

In past we built

infrastructure for exports

Never planned for

sustainable regional foods

Elements of Success

for Local Food Systems

Flexibility makes it work

in Twin Cities

Large brokers carry

shipments for small

Elements of Success

for Local Food Systems

Flexibility makes it work

in Minnesota

Scott Pampuch, Corner Table

“Get away from salesman mentality.

Know your producer”

Elements of Success

for Local Food Systems

Flexibility makes it work

in Minneapolis

Coastal Seafoods

“It’s all about relationships.”

Elements of Success

for Local Food Systems

Disconnect in Market

Pepin Heights Orchards

“We sell quality.

Buyers care about price.”

Elements of Success

for Local Food Systems

From: “All the same

and predictable”

To: “We know

producer’s quality,

and we cope with uncertainty”

Elements of Success

for Local Food Systems

Small firms & coops lead the way

Medium make larger impact

Large firms follow (or buy)

Local foods may be your

strongest path toward

community economic development



Issues in housing development

30% of ALL loans made in U.S. metro areas were subprime (2006)

Source: Wall Street Journal, October 11, 2007

Issues in housing development

Costs of services required for new housing developments

often exceed

tax base generated

Source: American Farmland Trust

Vision for local food economies






Food (& Land) Bill

Not just a Farm Bill

Invest in communities

rather than cash for commodities

“Finding Food in Farm Country”

(612) 869-8664

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