Vehicle Balance
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Vehicle Balance. Topic 4 Lesson 2. Vehicle Balance refers to the distribution of the weight of the vehicle on the tires as they meet the ground. Front. DROPS. Weight Shifts Change Vehicle Balanced. LIFTS. Rear.

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Vehicle Balance

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Vehicle balance

Vehicle Balance

Topic 4 Lesson 2

Vehicle Balance refers to the distribution of the weight of the vehicle on the tires as they meet the ground.

Front

DROPS

Weight Shifts Change Vehicle Balanced

LIFTS

Rear

Accelerating, braking, or steering shifts the vehicle’s weight and affects vehicle balance.

T – 2.28


Vehicle balance

Vehicle Balance

Topic 4 Lesson 1

  • Optimum balance is achieved at rest

  • Balance is affected by:

    a. suspension and tire pressure

    3. These weight transfers occur when the amount of weight or force pulling on each tire changes:

    • Roll: vehicle’s weight shifts from side to side

    • Pitch: vehicle’s weight shifts forward or backward

    • Yaw: vehicle’s rear tire weight shifts to one side

T – 2.24


Vehicle balance

ROLL

Topic 4 Lesson 1

Changing Vehicle Load from Side to Side is caused by:

  • Steering Wheel Movements

  • Brake Application and Steering Combinations

  • Slope of pavement

T – 2.26


Vehicle balance

PITCH

Topic 4 Lesson 2

Changing Vehicle Load from Front to Rear (Pitch)

  • Light accelerator pressure

  • Releasing the brake

  • Progressive accelerator pressure

  • Thrust accelerator pressure

Changing Vehicle Load from Rear to Front (Pitch)

  • Releasing the accelerator

  • Controlled braking (Squeeze on)

  • Threshold braking

  • Trail braking (Squeeze off)

T – 2.27


Vehicle balance

YAW

Topic 4 Lesson 1

Vehicle’s rear tire weight shifts to one side during:

  • Brake Application and Steering Combinations

T – 2.26


Vehicle balance

Vision Requirements

Topic 2 Lesson 1

  • Gaining Visual Information

    • - Focus Vision

    • - Central Vision

    • -Peripheral Vision

  • Maintaining an Open Line of Sight

  • Developing Searching Skills

Note: 90% of the driving task is visual!

T – 3.8


Vehicle balance

Driver’s Useful Vision Areas

Topic 2 Lesson 2

Gathering Useful Visual Information

Focus Vision Area (Focal)

Includes 3 to 5 degrees of useful information that is used when:

  • Targeting

  • Establishing a Visual Lead

  • Reading Signs and Interpreting Signals

T – 3.10


Vehicle balance

Driver’s Useful Vision Areas

Topic 2 Lesson 2

Gathering Useful Visual Information

Central Vision Area

30 to 36 degrees of useful information that includes:

  • Referencing Vehicle Position to Roadway

  • Viewing Path of Travel

  • Viewing Line of Sight to Target Area

T – 3.11


Vehicle balance

Driver’s Useful Vision Areas

Topic 2 Lesson 2

Gathering Useful Visual Information

Peripheral Vision

Peripheral Vision

  • Peripheral Vision

  • 175-180 degrees of useful information that detects:

    • Motion Changes

    • Color Changes

T – 3.12


Vehicle balance

Visual Fields in Operation

Topic 2 Lesson 3

Capacity of Visual Fields

Focus Vision

Focus Vision

  • Visual Lead, Targeting, Signs, Signals

Central Vision

Central Vision

Referencing, Path of Travel, Sightlines

Peripheral Vision

Peripheral Vision

Motion and Color Changes

T – 3.13


Vehicle balance

  • PATH OF TRAVEL

  • How you are going to get from point A (where you are)

    to point B (where you want to go)

B

A

  • LINE OF SIGHT

  • Ability to see your path of travel


Vehicle balance

Line of Sight/Path of Travel

Topic 2 Lesson 3

Line of Sight Limitations or Restrictions

When line of sight is restricted or blocked:

adjust speed until

visual lead, target area, and the line of sight are restored.

Target

T – 3.15


Vehicle balance

Topic 2 Lesson 4

Effect of Speed on Vision and Steering

VISUAL FIELDS NARROW

  • As speed increases:

    • central vision narrows and blurs

    • peripheral vision decreases

    • changes in steering will cause exaggerated vehicle movements

T – 3.16


Vehicle balance

Topic 2 Lesson 4

Effect of Speed on Vision

As speed increases, look farther ahead ofyour vehicle to increase line of sight (LOS) and search your path of travel (POT) to:

  • allow more time to gather information;

  • place more space between other users and your vehicle so sudden steering changes are held to a minimum.

T – 3.17


Space management system

Topic 2 Lesson 4

Space Management System

Good Drivers Develop a Space Management System

  • S earch

  • Evaluate

  • E xecute

  • i n

  • T ime

T-3.20a


Searching

Topic 3 Lesson 1

Searching

  • Identifying high risk situations

    • Effective searching techniques

    • Having time to identify hazards

    • Keeping stable scanning eye movements

    • Getting a large view of the roadway

    • Establishing a line of sight and path of travel position

  • Gaining information

    • Effectively managing space

    • Looking for changing areas

    • Looking for open areas

    • Looking for closed areas

T – 3.21


Evaluating

Topic 3 Lesson 1

Evaluating

RECOGNIZING high risk situations

  • Potential and Critical Hazards

    • Collision Potential

    • Intersections

    • Curves

    • Position Adjustments

    • Speed Adjustments

    • Reduced Line of Sight

T – 3.22


Evaluating1

Topic 3 Lesson 1

Evaluating

Decision-making

Preventing high risk situations

  • Maintain open LOS, POT, and proper lane position

  • Manage time and space

Controlling high risk situations

  • Maintain an open line of sight (LOS) and path of travel (POT)

  • Motion control

  • Controlled/threshold braking

  • Progressive acceleration

  • Steering control

  • Hand-to-hand

  • Evasive action

T – 3.23


Executing

Topic 3 Lesson 1

Executing

  • Speed changes

  • Lane position changes

  • Space control

in response to

  • risk or danger

  • traffic conditions

  • roadway conditions

  • vehicle balance

T – 3.24


Vehicle balance

Evaluate/Execute

Topic 3 Lesson 1

Steer Right

Wrong Decision

Indecision

4

Second Space Provides More Options

Steer left to open space

Correct Decision

LP 4

T – 3.25


Vehicle balance

Following Intervals

Topic 2 Lesson 4

  • 2 Seconds… Allows driver time to steer out of problem areas at all listed speeds on a dry surface and stop before problem areas at speeds under 35 mph.

  • 3 Seconds… Allows driver time to steer out of problem areas at all listed speeds on dry surface and stop before problem areas at speeds to 45 mph.

  • 4 Seconds… Allows driver to steer out of problem areas at speeds up to 65 mph on dry surface and stop before problem areas at speeds to the legal limit of 65 mph.

  • Most factory equipped passenger car tires are not designed to steer out of problem areas at speeds beyond 75 mph. At such speeds, speed rated tires are required due to increased tire heat and reduced traction caused by excessive sidewall flexion--especially on curves or when turning.

T – 3.20


Vehicle balance

Determining Following Intervals

Topic 2 Lesson 4

Fixed Object or Shadow

One Thousand One

One Thousand Two

One Thousand Three

One Thousand Four

T – 3.18


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