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Tissues and tissue types. Tissues are: Collections of specialized cells and cell products organized to perform a limited number of functions Histology = study of tissues The four tissue types are: Epithelial Connective Muscular Nervous. Epithelial tissue. Includes glands and epithelium

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Tissues and tissue types l.jpg

Tissues and tissue types

  • Tissues are:

    • Collections of specialized cells and cell products organized to perform a limited number of functions

      • Histology = study of tissues

  • The four tissue types are:

    • Epithelial

    • Connective

    • Muscular

    • Nervous


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Epithelial tissue

  • Includes glands and epithelium

    • Glands are secretory

  • Is avascular

  • Forms a protective barrier that regulates permeability

  • Cells may show polarity


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Functions of epithelium

  • Physical protection

  • Control permeability

  • Provide sensation

  • Produce specialized secretions


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Specializations of epithelium

  • Perform secretory functions

  • Perform transport functions

  • Maintain physical integrity

  • Ciliated epithelia move materials across their surface


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The Polarity of Epithelial Cells


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Maintaining the integrity of epithelium

  • Cells attach via cell adhesion molecules (CAM)

  • Cells attach at specialized cell junctions

    • Tight junctions

    • Desmosomes

    • Gap junctions


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Intercellular connections


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Structure of typical epithelium

  • Basal lamina attaches to underlying surface

    • Lamina lucida

    • Lamina densa

  • Germinative cells replace short-lived epithelial cells


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Classification of epithelia

  • Number of cell layers

    • Simple

    • Stratified

  • Shape of apical surface cells

    • Squamous

    • Cuboidal

    • Columnar


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Squamous Epithelia


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Cuboidal Epithelia


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Cuboidal Epithelia


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Transitional Epithelium


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Columnar Epithelia


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Columnar Epithelia


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Columnar Epithelia


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Glandular epithelia

  • Exocrine glands

    • Secrete through ducts onto the surface of the gland

  • Endocrine glands

    • Release hormones into surrounding fluid


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Glandular secretions can be:

  • Merocrine (product released through exocytosis)

  • Apocrine (involves the loss of both product and cytoplasm)

  • Holocrine (destroys the cell)


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Mechanisms of Glandular Secretion


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Glands

  • Unicellular

    • Individual secretory cells

  • Multicellular

    • Organs containing glandular epithelium

    • Classified according to structure


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A Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands


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Connective tissue functions:

  • Establishing a structural framework

  • Transporting fluids and dissolved materials

  • Protecting delicate organs

  • Supporting, surrounding and interconnecting tissues

  • Storing energy reserves

  • Defending the body from microorganisms


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A Classification of Connective Tissues


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Connective tissues contain

  • Specialized cells

  • Matrix

    • Composed of extracellular protein fibers and a ground substance


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Connective tissue proper

  • Contains varied cell populations

  • Contains various fiber types

  • A syrupy ground substance


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Fluid connective tissue

  • Contains a distinctive cell population

  • Watery ground substance with dissolved proteins

  • Two types

    • Blood

    • Lymph


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Supporting connective tissues

  • Less diverse cell population

  • Dense ground substance

  • Closely packed fibers

  • Two types

    • Cartilage

    • Bone


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Connective tissue proper

  • Contains fibers, a viscous ground substance, and a varied cell population

    • Fibroblasts

    • Macrophage

    • Adipocytes

    • Mesenchymal cells

    • Melanocytes

    • Mast cells

    • Lymphocytes

    • Microphages


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Connective tissue proper

  • Three types of fiber

    • Collagen fibers

    • Reticular fibers

    • Elastic fibers


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Connective tissue proper

  • Classified as loose or dense

  • Loose

    • Embryonic mesenchyme, mucous connective tissues

    • Areolar tissue

    • Adipose tissue

    • Reticular tissue

  • Dense

    • Dense regular CT

    • Dense irregular CT


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The Cells and Fibers of Connective Tissue Proper


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Connective Tissue in Embryos


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Adipose and Reticular Tissues


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Dense Connective Tissues


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Dense Connective Tissues


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Dense Connective Tissues


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Fluid connective tissues

  • Distinctive collections of cells in a fluid matrix

  • Blood

    • Formed elements and plasma

      • Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets

    • Arteries carry blood away, veins carry to the heart

    • Capillaries allow diffusion into the interstitial fluid

  • Lymph

    • Interstitial fluid entering the lymphatic vessels


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Formed Elements of the Blood


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Supporting connective tissues

  • Cartilage and bone support the rest of the body

  • Cartilage

    • Grows via interstitial and appositional growth

    • Matrix is a firm gel containing chondroitin sulfate

    • Cells called chondrocytes

    • Cells found in lacunae

    • Perichondrium separates cartilage from surrounding tissues

    • Three types: hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage


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The Perichondrium and Types of Cartilage


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The Perichondrium and Types of Cartilage


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The Perichondrium and Types of Cartilage


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Bone, or osseus tissue

  • Has osteocytes

    • Depend on diffusion through canaliculi for nutrients

  • Little ground substance

  • Dense mineralized matrix

  • Surrounded by periosteum


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Bone


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Membranes are simple organs

  • Form a barrier

  • Composed of epithelium and connective tissue

  • Four types

    • Cutaneous

    • Synovial

    • Serous

    • Mucous


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Membranes


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Mucous membranes

  • Line cavities that communicate with the exterior

  • Contain lamina propria


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Serous membranes

  • Line sealed internal cavities

  • Form transudate


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  • Cutaneous membrane

    • Covers the body surface

  • Synovial membrane

    • Incomplete lining within joint cavities


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Organs and systems are interconnected

  • Network of connective tissue proper consisting of

    • Superficial fascia

    • Deep fascia

    • Subserous fascia


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The Fasciae


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Muscle tissue

  • Specialized for contraction

  • Three types

    • Skeletal

    • Cardiac

    • Smooth


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Muscle Tissue


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Muscle Tissue


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Muscle Tissue


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Skeletal muscle

  • Cells are multinucleate

  • Striated voluntary muscle

  • Divides via satellite cells


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Cardiac muscle

  • Cardiocytes occur only in the heart

  • Striated involuntary muscle

  • Relies on pacemaker cells for regular contraction


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Smooth muscle tissue

  • Non-striated involuntary muscle

  • Can divide and regenerate


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Neural tissue

  • Conducts electrical impulses

  • Conveys information from one area to another


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Neural tissue cells

  • Neurons

    • Transmit information

  • Neuroglia

    • Support neural tissue

    • Help supply nutrients to neurons


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Neural Tissue


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Neural anatomy

  • Cell body

  • Dendrites

  • Axon (nerve fiber)

    • Carries information to other neurons


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Inflammation and regeneration

  • Injured tissues respond in coordinated fashion

  • Homeostasis restored by inflammation and regeneration


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Inflammatory response

  • Isolates injured area

  • Damaged cells, tissue components and dangerous microorganisms removed

    • Infection avoided

  • Regeneration restores normal function


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An Introduction to Inflammation


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Aging and tissue repair

  • Change with age

  • Repair and maintenance less efficient

  • Structure altered

  • Chemical composition altered


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Aging and cancer incidence

  • Incidence of cancer increases with age

  • 70-80% of all cases due to exposure to chemicals or environmental factors


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Changes in a Tissue under Stress


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