I personality
Download
1 / 37

I. Personality - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 178 Views
  • Updated On :

chapter 2 . I. Personality. chapter 2. Defining personality and traits. Personality Distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual [p42] Trait

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'I. Personality' - jana


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
I personality l.jpg

chapter 2

I. Personality


Defining personality and traits l.jpg

chapter 2

Defining personality and traits

  • Personality

    Distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual [p42]

  • Trait

    A characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling [p42]



Big five pp50 51 l.jpg

chapter 2

Big Five [pp50-51]

  • Openness vs resistance

  • Conscientiousness vs impulsiveness

  • Extroversion vs introversion

  • Agreeableness vs antagonism

  • Neuroticism vs emotional stability



Heredity and temperament l.jpg

chapter 2

Heredity and temperament

Temperaments[p54]

Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways

Present in infancy, assumed to be innate

Relatively stable over time

Includes

Reactivity

Soothability

Positive and negative emotionality


Genes p53 l.jpg
Genes [p53]

  • Made up of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

  • Units of heredity that make up the chromosomes


Twins p56 l.jpg

Identical twins develop from a single fertilized egg

AKA: monozygotic twins

Fraternal twins develop from two separate eggs that have each been fertilized by a sperm cell

AKA: dizygotic twins

Twins [p56]



B f skinner l.jpg
B.F. Skinner

  • Radical behaviorism

  • Personality is ones behavior

  • Change environment to change behavior


Albert bandura s social cognitive perspective l.jpg

chapter 2

Albert Bandura’s social cognitive perspective

Reciprocal determinism

Two-way interaction between aspects of the

environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits [p59]



Culture values and traits l.jpg

chapter 2

Culture, values, and traits

Culture[p61]

A program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society

A set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community


Culture values and traits15 l.jpg

chapter 2

Culture, values, and traits

Individualist cultures

Cultures in which the self is regarded as autonomous, and individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others [p62]

Collectivist cultures

Cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships, and harmony with one’s group is prized above individual goals and wishes [p62]



Humanists the inner experience p66 l.jpg

chapter 2

Humanists—the inner experience [p66]

  • capacity for personal growth

  • freedom to choose

  • positive qualities


Carl rogers l.jpg

chapter 2

Carl Rogers

Unconditional positive regard

A situation in which the acceptance and love one receives from significant others is unqualified [p66]

Conditional positive regard

A situation in which the acceptance and love one receives from significant others is contingent upon one’s behavior [p66]


Carl rogers p66 l.jpg
Carl Rogers [p66]

  • Self concept: an individual’s overall perceptions of their abilities, behaviors, and personality

  • The selfand the ideal self


Evaluating humanist approaches p67 l.jpg

chapter 2

Evaluating humanist approaches [p67]

Hard to operationally define many of the concepts

Added balance to the study of personality

Encouraged others to focus on “positive psychology”

Fostered new appreciation for resilience



Psychodynamic theories p42 l.jpg

chapter 2

Psychodynamic theories [p42]

Theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious dynamics within the individual, with a focus on:

  • Early life experiences

  • Stages of psychological development

  • Fantasies

  • Symbolic meanings



The structure of personality p43 l.jpg

chapter 2

The structure of personality [p43]

Id: operates according to the pleasure principle

Primitive, unconscious part of personality

Ego: operates according to the reality principle

Mediates between id and superego

Superego: moral ideals, conscience


Defense mechanisms l.jpg

chapter 2

Defense mechanisms

Methods used by the ego to to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness [p43]


Defense mechanisms pp43 44 l.jpg

chapter 2

Defense mechanisms [pp43-44]

  • Repression

  • Rationalization

  • Displacement

  • Sublimation

  • Projection

  • Reaction formation

  • Denial

  • Regression


Repression l.jpg

chapter 2

Repression

The basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness [p43]


Rationalization l.jpg

chapter 2

Rationalization

The defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions [not in textbook]


Displacement l.jpg

chapter 2

Displacement

A defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person [p44]


Sublimation l.jpg

chapter 2

Sublimation

Occurs when the ego replaces an unacceptable impulse with a socially acceptable one [not in textbook]


Projection l.jpg

chapter 2

Projection

A defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others [p44]


Reaction formation l.jpg

chapter 2

Reaction Formation

A defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites [p44]


Denial l.jpg

chapter 2

Denial

Occurs when the ego refuses to acknowledge anxiety-producing realities [p44]


Regression l.jpg

chapter 2

Regression

A defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile stage of development [p44]



Personality development l.jpg

Freud’s 5 stages of psychosexual development

[pp44-45]

Oral

Anal

Phallic

Latency

Genital

Fixation

occurs

when

stages

aren’t

resolved

successfully

chapter 2

Personality development


Evaluating psychodynamic theories p48 l.jpg

chapter 2

Evaluating psychodynamic theories [p48]

Three scientific failings

  • Violating the principle of falsifiability

  • Drawing universal principles from the experiences of a few atypical patients

  • Basing theories of personality development on retrospective accounts and the fallible memories of patients


ad