Personality. First text published by G. Allport in the 1930s First theoretical models date back to William James and Sigmund Freud (both late 1800s) Considerable variability in explanations for personality (biological/genetic models, psychodynamic, self-theory, etc.) Common Elements:
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First text published by G. Allport in the 1930s
First theoretical models date back to William James and Sigmund Freud (both late 1800s)
Considerable variability in explanations for personality (biological/genetic models, psychodynamic, self-theory, etc.)
Stability (situations and time) – differentiated from mood
Research on stability over the lifespan (greater as we age)
Affective, cognitive and behavioral components
Recent survey of practicing Ph.D.s, PsyD.s, and Ed.s revealed that only 32% use personality tests and only 43% do treatment planning.
De-emphasis in personality training occurred at the same time as Mischel shock in 1968, so clinicians trained in the late 1960s and 1970s did not value personality assessment
Today, treatment planning based on assessments is essential from both an ethical standpoint and for insurance reimbursement
The structure of personality
Personality involves stable patterns of behavior, affect, and cognitions. So how stable is stable? (states vs. traits)
Levels of analysis
1. factors - groups of traits that show better global predictive utility (e.g., Big 5 of N, E, O, A, C; The Big 3 of N, E, P; Big 2)
2. traits - clusters of consistent individual behaviors
3. habits - consistent (over time) individual behaviors
4. single acts - individual behaviors
All levels are used to predict future behavior with the top being the most robust
Consider this model when recommending or implementing change in clients
Difficult to predict specific single behaviors from global trends; (Epstein, 1983)
For clinical evaluations, if the context of interest is known, then you may want to trade off the generalizability and give a specific prediction
e.g., Pt.’s test scores indicate that he is generally impulsive. This may be exacerbated when in the company of other individuals who are also impulsive and when the individual is drinking, as alcohol minimizes any inhibition processes that he might have. This substantially increases the likelihood that he will act impulsively when...
Assessing Axis I and II
Personality addresses both AXIS I and AXIS II disorders.
What are some AXIS I disorders that might be related to personality traits?e.g.,
depression and NA/Neuroticism
anxiety and NA/neuroticism
impulse control disorders & extraversion/sensation seeking
AXIS II personality disorders explicitly link up with personality assessments (video & DSM-IV)
Cluster A (odd): Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal
Custer B (emotional): ASPD, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic
Cluster C (anxious): Avoidant, Dependent, Obsessive-Compulsive
PD NOS – features of several Dx,but does not meet criteria for any one.
-5th digit is severity: 1 = mild, 2= moderate, 3 = severe without psychotic features, 4= severe with psychotic features, 5= partial remission, 6= full remission, 0 = unspecified (except for hypomanic where 5th digit is always a 0, and unspecified, where there is no 5th digit).