What is personality?. Definition: a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the worldFactors that influence personality: (biological and genetic factors, life experiences, the way we think about ourselves, the way we behave toward each other).
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
1. CHAPTER 2 “Personality”
2. What is personality? Definition: a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world
Factors that influence personality:
(biological and genetic factors, life
experiences, the way we think about
ourselves, the way we behave toward each
3. Four Theoretical Perspectives on Personality Psychodynamic
Behavioral and Social Cognitive
4. Psychodynamic Perspectives Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Views personality as being primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and as developing in stages
(e.g., While hugging Tom, Barbara says, “I love you Jeff.”)
5. Three Structures of Personality Id
Superego (our “conscience”)
6. Defense Mechanisms Repression-(memory loss)—most important
Reaction formation-(become opposite)
Denial-(fail to acknowledge)
7. Five Stages of Freud’s Psycho-analytic Theory Oral (first 18 months)
Genital (adolescence and adulthood)
8. Revised Psychodynamic Perspectives Karen Horney’s Sociocultural Theory
Argued that sociocultural influences on personality development should be considered.
Strongly rejected the notion of “penis envy.”
Carl Jung’s Analytic Theory
Believed that because of their common past, all human beings share a collective unconscious, which is expressed through archetypes.
Alfred Adler’s Individual Psychology
Believed that people are motivated by purposes and goals; they are creators of their own lives.
Identified concepts related to one’s strive for superiority (e.g., compensation; overcompensation; inferiority complex; superiority complex).
9. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives Focus on the environment, experience, and observable behavior. Theorists analyze how people learn to behave in particular ways.
10. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives (cont.) Three Types of Learning:
Observational Learning (modeling)
11. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov
Emphasized a learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a response similar to the response to the meaningful stimulus.
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
e.g., meat powder
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Conditioned Response (CR)
12. Operant Conditioning B. F. Skinner
Emphasized a form of learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior’s occurrence
(Also called instrumental conditioning)
Reinforcement (positive vs. negative)
Punishment (positive vs. negative)
13. Social Cognitive Theory & Observational Learning Albert Bandura; Walter Mischel
Social cognitive theory: states that behavior, environment, and cognitive factors are important in understanding personality
Observational learning: learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates someone else’s behavior (a.k.a. imitation or modeling)
14. Humanistic Perspectives Stress a person’s capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose one’s own destiny, and positive human qualities.
Carl Roger’s Person-Centered Theory
Stressed the importance of becoming a fully functioning person
Related concepts: self-concept; unconditional positive regard; empathy; genuiness
15. Humanistic Perspectives (cont.) Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Emphasized idea that people must satisfy their basic needs before they try to satisfy higher needs.
Hierarchy of needs sequence: physiological; safety; love and belongingness; esteem; and self-actualization
16. Trait Perspectives Trait: an enduring characteristic that tends to lead to certain behaviors
Theories state that personality consists of broad, enduring dispositions that tend to lead to characteristic responses
Gordon Allport is referred to as the “father of trait theory.
Believed that each individual has a unique set of personality traits.
Argued that if we can determine a person’s traits, we can predict how that person might behave in various circumstances.
17. Trait Perspectives (cont.) Hans Eysenck’s Dimensions of Personality
Believed that three main dimensions are needed to explain personality (introversion-extraversion; stable-unstable; psychoticism)
Costa and McCrae’s Big Five Personality Factors
Believed that there are dimensions of personality, the “supertraits” that describe a person’s fundamental traits (openness; conscientiousness; extraversion; agreeableness; neuroticism)
Walter Mischel’s Situationism
Believed that personality often varies from one context to another.
Views personality as depending on both traits and situations.
18. Traits, Situations, & Culture Individualism vs.
19. Measuring Personality Projective Tests (geared toward unconscious thought– uses ambiguous stimuli– e.g., Rorschach Inkblot test; Thematic Apperception Test (TAT))
Self-Report Tests (self-report objective tests– e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI); Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory-Revised; Hogan Personality Inventory)
Behavioral Assessment (direct observation)
Cognitive Assessment (interviews/questionnaires)