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Modern European Revolutions: Review. From 1917 to 1989. Russian Revolution, 1917-1921. Historical background: Tsarist state which was slow to modernize politically and economically. Late 19 th century: Rise of revolutionary movements on the left ( Narodniki , Nihilists, Socialists)

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russian revolution 1917 1921
Russian Revolution, 1917-1921
  • Historical background: Tsarist state which was slow to modernize politically and economically.
  • Late 19th century: Rise of revolutionary movements on the left (Narodniki, Nihilists, Socialists)
  • Flaws of ruling system: Government does not respond effectively to crises it faces, e.g., Russo-Japanese war, 1904-05, Russian Revolution of 1905)
russian revolution cont
Russian Revolution, cont.
  • Opponents of the regime on the left: Marxist factions (Bolsheviks and Mensheviks); Agrarian socialists (SRs); Anarchists.
  • Failure of Liberalism: Octobrists and Kadets (Duma, parliamentary road to reform and change?)
  • Final crisis: First World War and the collapse of Tsarist regime, 1917.
russian revolution cont1
Russian Revolution, cont.
  • Revolutionary events of 1917: Provisional government, Soviets (dual power-sharing), the role of crowds
  • Fatal flaws of Provisional Government: opposition from the right (Kornilov) and left (Bolsheviks, etc.)
  • October Revolution of 1917 (Rise of Bolshevism)
russian revolution cont2
Russian Revolution, cont.
  • Civil War and Revolution, 1918-1921
  • “Reds” vs. “Whites”: Who fought whom? And why?
  • Triumph of the Communists: What did the revolution achieve?
points to consider
  • Ideological content of revolutionary movements on the left.
  • Role of gender/crowds
  • Phases of revolution: Liberal democratic , radical transformation accompanied by bloodshed/violence.
  • Accomplishments of revolutionaries: Vision of new society, new social and economic forms (art, collective enterprises, media…)
spanish civil war and revolution
Spanish Civil War and Revolution
  • Historical background: From dictatorship (1923-1930) to Second Republic (1931-1936).
  • Political factions on left and right
  • Breakdown of democracy
spanish civil war and revolution1
Spanish Civil War and Revolution
  • July rebellion and popular revolution
  • Examples of revolutionary events: Collectivization projects, transforming the urban and rural landscapes (revolutionary cultural, economic, and political forms)
  • International intervention
spanish civil war and revolution2
Spanish Civil War and Revolution
  • Opposing sides: “Nationalists” vs. “Republicans”
  • Course of war: Major battles and contrasting conditions of war-time society in Nationalist and Republican zones.
points to consider1
Points to consider
  • Ideological content of revolutionary factions on the left (anarchosyndicalists, etc.)
  • Examples of revolutionary behavior: collectives, dress codes, gender relations, people power.
  • Limits imposed on revolution
points to consider cont
Points to consider, cont.
  • Accomplishments of revolution: empowering peasants and workers, establishing examples of self-rule/control over key elements of society and economy.
  • Why revolution failed: shortcomings of revolutionary strategy and tactics; role of counter-revolutionary forces on the left; military superiority of Nationalists.
revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989
  • How had revolutionary model which emerged under the Bolsheviks in 1917-1921 changed over the course of the 20th century?
  • Why were communist regimes established after 1945 non-revolutionary?
  • How would you characterize the “revolutionary” forces which eroded communist rule between 1945 and 1989?
revolutions of 19891
Revolutions of 1989
  • What general circumstances gave rise to the collapse of communism in 1989: economic conditions, rigidity of communist state systems, persistence of nationalism, pressures/influences from liberal west.
  • Examples of “liberal” revolutions of 1989
revolutions of 19892
Revolutions of 1989
  • How were the European revolutions of 1989 related to previous revolutions of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries?