Vitamins in ruminants l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 35

Vitamins in Ruminants PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 795 Views
  • Updated On :
  • Presentation posted in: General

Vitamins in Ruminants. Vitamins. Organic compounds required in trace amounts for biological processes Vital amine Fat soluble A, D, E, and K Absorbed with lipids Water soluble C, B family. Vitamins. Fat soluble Vitamins A, D, E and K Water soluble

Download Presentation

Vitamins in Ruminants

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Vitamins in ruminants l.jpg

Vitamins in Ruminants


Vitamins l.jpg

Vitamins

  • Organic compounds required in trace amounts for biological processes

  • Vital amine

  • Fat soluble

    • A, D, E, and K

    • Absorbed with lipids

  • Water soluble

    • C, B family


Vitamins3 l.jpg

Vitamins

  • Fat soluble

    • Vitamins A, D, E and K

  • Water soluble

    • Thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, pyridoxine,

    • pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid,

    • vitamin B12, vitamin C, choline

    • Water soluble vitamins and vitamin K synthesized in the rumen or in body tissues

    • Dietary requirements: Vitamins A, D, and E


Vitamin nutrition of ruminants l.jpg

Vitamin Nutrition of Ruminants

  • Important

  • Some vitamins must be supplemented in the diet

  • Several aspects of vitamin nutrition unique to

  • ruminants

  • 3. Likely will be more important:

    • As productivity of ruminants is increased

    • With increased confinement of animals

  • References

  • Chapter 7 Dairy NRC 2001

  • Chapter 6 Beef NRC 1996


Vitamin requirements of ruminants l.jpg

Vitamin Requirements of Ruminants

  • Ruminants require the same vitamins

  • as monogastric animals at cell level

  • Prior to rumen development young ruminants

  • require dietary sources of vitamins

    • Colostrum and milk

    • Concentration of vitamins in colostrum is greater

  • than in milk

  • Calves need to be fed vitamins if they are being fed

  • milk replacers with nonmilk protein


Vitamin requirements of ruminants6 l.jpg

Vitamin Requirements of Ruminants

  • Mature ruminants have dietary requirement for:

    • Vitamins A, D, and E

      • Vitamin D in feed or from UV exposure

  • B vitamins usually not supplemented in ruminant diets

    • High producing dairy cows sometimes benefit

    • from supplementation with B vitamins

    • Mixtures of biotin, niacin, riboflaven, panothenic

    • acid, thiamin, and B12


Inadequate dietary vitamin intakes l.jpg

Inadequate Dietary Vitamin Intakes

  • Low concentrations in feeds

    • Harvesting and agronomic effects

  • Processing and storage effects

    • Humidity, heat, light, pH, minerals, pelleting

  • Reduced feed intake

  • Bioavailability

    • B-vitamins affected more than fat soluble

  • Level of production

    • Increased grain intake, increased feed intake,

    • increased rate of passage, reduced rumen function

  • Rearing in confinement out of sunlight

  • Stress and disease

    • Decreased feed intake, increased requirement


Factors influencing vitamin stability l.jpg

Factors Influencing Vitamin Stability

+ = stable - = unstable ( ) = tocopheryl acetate


Circumstances affecting vitamin nutrition l.jpg

Circumstances Affecting Vitamin Nutrition

  • Vitamin antagonists of importance to ruminants

  • Dicumarin (Dicumarol)

    • Found in moldy sweet clover - Blocks the action

  • of vitamin K (Depresses formation of thrombin)

  • Animals can bleed internally

  • Rancid fats

    • Destroys vitamins A, D, and E

  • Thiamin antagonists

    • Thiaminase - may develop in the rumen

    • Amprolium blocks absorption

    • Sulfur may destroy thiamin in the rumen


Situations for supplementing vitamins l.jpg

Situations for Supplementing Vitamins


Vitamin a retinol l.jpg

Vitamin A (Retinol)

  • Vitamin of most practical importance in ruminant feeds.

    • Deficiency most likely:

      • High concentrate feeds (low forage)

      • Large amounts of fermented feeds

      • Mature - drought pastures

      • Long stored feeds

        • Sunlight, air, high temperatures

      • Heavily processed feeds

  • Some destruction of vitamin A in the rumen

    • Increases when concentrates are fed

    • Forage diets 20%Grain diets up to 70%


Carotene l.jpg

-Carotene

  • Provitamin A found in many plants

    • Mostly in the vegetative parts of plants

    • Decreases as plants mature

    • Decreases with time in storage

    • Some destruction in the rumen (0 to 35%)

    • Converted to retinol by enzymes in intestinal

    • mucosal cells

    • Some absorption of -carotene

  • Ruminants do not efficiently convert carotene

  • to vitamin A

    • 1 mg carotene = 400 IU vitamin A


Vitamin a l.jpg

Vitamin A

  • Deficiency

    • Reduced feed intake - slow growth

    • Rough hair coat

    • Edema of joints and brisket

    • Watery eyes

    • Night blindness

      • Retinol needed for synthesis of rhodopsin

    • Low conception

    • Still births

    • Function of immune system


Vitamin a14 l.jpg

Vitamin A

  • Functions

    • Normal night vision

    • http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matthews/rhodopsin.html


Vitamin a15 l.jpg

Vitamin A

  • Requirements

    • Cattle IU/kg feed DM

      • Growing2,200

      • Pregnant beef cows2,800

      • Pregnant dairy cows4,000

      • Lactating cows3,900

    • Sheep

      • Growing lambs1,500

      • Gestating ewes3,300

      • Lactating ewes2,700


Vitamin a16 l.jpg

Vitamin A

  • Requirements

    • Dairy cattle

    • Growing: 80 IU/kg body wt

      • Adult: 110 IU/kg body wt

  • Supplemental Vitamin A (retinol)

    • 1 IU of Vit A activity =

      • 0.344 ug of all-trans retinyl acetate

      • 0.550 ug all-trans retinyl palmitate


Vitamin a when to supplement l.jpg

Vitamin A – When to Supplement?

  • Carotene content of feeds is variable and usually

  • unknown

    • Cost of supplemental vitamin A is low – so usually

    • should supplement

      • Exception is animals grazing green forages

      • Should be consuming adequate carotene

  • Increased exposure to infectious pathogens

  • Times when immunocompetence may be reduced


Vitamin a reserves in the body l.jpg

Vitamin A Reserves in the Body

  • Vitamin A stored in the liver when intake of

  • vitamin A or carotene is high

  • Vitamin A in the liver has about 4 week

  • half life

  • Should not depend on more that 2 to 4

  • months of protection from storage of

  • vitamin A in the liver

  • Ruminants have a high tolerance for

  • vitamin A Will tolerate 66,000 IU/kg feed


Vitamin d l.jpg

Vitamin D

  • Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2) - found in plants

  • Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) - found in animals

  • Photochemical conversion in skin:

    • 7-dehydrocholesterolCholecalciferol

  • Liver (Sequesters Vit D3)

  • Vit D3 25-hydroxy-vit D3

    • Circulating form of Vit D3

    • Blood concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vit D3

  • indication of vitamin D status of the animal

  • Kindney

  • 25-hydroxy-vit D3 1, 25-dihydroxy-vit D3

    • Active form of vitamin D

    • Active on skeleton and intestine

    • Potentiates action of parathyroid hormone


  • Vitamin d from uv exposure l.jpg

    Vitamin D from UV exposure

    Active Vit D3


    Vitamin d 3 l.jpg

    Vitamin D3

    • Low blood Ca (or P) increases parathyroid hormone

    • secretion

      • Parathyroid hormone increases production of

        • 1,25-dihydroxy-vit D3 in kidney

        • Increases resorption of bone Ca and P

    • Involved in:

      • Absorption of Ca and P and mobilization of Ca

      • and P from bone

      • Regulation of blood Ca and P

      • Immune cell function

      • Reproduction of males and females


    Vitamin d ruminants l.jpg

    Vitamin D - Ruminants

    • Deficiency

      • Rickets in calves

      • Swollen and stiff joints

      • Reduced feed intake

      • Tetany

      • Weak bones

    • Vitamin D can be toxic

      • High blood Ca

      • Calcification of soft tissues

      • Loss of appetite

    • Vitamin D not stored in the body in any quantity


    Vitamin d requirements l.jpg

    Vitamin D - Requirements

    • Requirement IU/kg Feed DM

    • All beef cattle275

    • Growing lambs185

    • Gestating ewes216

    • Lactating ewes148

    • Lactating dairy30 IU/kg body wt

    • Dry pregnant cows30 IU/kg body wt

      • Generally recognized as more than required

    • Animals fed sun cured hays and/or kept in sunlight have limited needs for supplemental vitamin D

    • Dairy NRC does not give credit to feed and sunlight

    • as sources of vitamin D


    Vitamin d toxicity l.jpg

    Vitamin D Toxicity

    • Safe feeding levels:

      • A few days - 25,000 IU/kg feed

      • 60 days - 2,200 IU/kg feed

    • Toxicity

      • Loss of appetite

      • Weight loss

      • Reduced rumination

      • Depression

      • Widespread calcification of soft tissue

        • Kidneys, heart, pancreas, lymph glands, lung alveoli

      • Inflammation

      • Demineralization of skeletal system


    Feeding mega doses of vitamin d l.jpg

    Feeding Mega Doses of Vitamin D

    • Prevent milk fever

    • 20 million IU/d starting 3 to 5 days before calving

    • continuing through the fist day postpartum

    • Improve tenderness of beef

    • Assumption:

      • Increased blood and muscle Ca increases

      • activity of calpains, enzymes in muscle

      • that degrade muscle myofibrils

    • Observations:

      • Blood Ca increased

      • Increased degradation of myofibrils

      • Reduced force to shear muscle


    Vitamin e l.jpg

    Vitamin E

    • -tocopherol is the most common form of

    • vitamin E in feeds

      • Vit E content of feeds is highly variable

      • Vit E decreases in forages with drying and storage

        • Most fresh forages excellent source of Vit E

      • Most grains have low concentrations of Vit E

      • Heat treatment destroys most of the Vit E

    • Supplemental form of vitamin E is DL- -tocopherol

      • The esterified form is more stable than the alcohol

      • Rumen metabolism is minimal

      • 1 IU = 1 mg DL- -tocopherol


    Vitamin e28 l.jpg

    Vitamin E

    • Functions as an antioxidant and involved in

      • Maintenance of cell membranes

      • Immunity

      • Reproduction

    • Deficiency

      • White muscle disease

      • Weak muscles

      • Retained placenta

      • Reduced reproduction

      • Reduced disease resistance

    • Toxicity not demonstrated in ruminants

    • Vitamin E not extensively stored in the body


    Vitamin e dairy 2001 l.jpg

    Vitamin E - Dairy - 2001

    • 1. Dry cows 60 days before calving

      • 80 IU/kg feed DM

      • Based on reduction of mastitis and immune function

      • Higher amounts needed for fetus and to increase

      • concentration in colostrum

    • 2. Lactating cows

      • 20 IU/kg feed DM

    • Needs to be increased when poor quality

    • forage is fed or if feeds have low Se content

      • Supplement Se if low in soils

        • 3 to 5 mg /d for dry cows

        • 6 to 8 mg/d for lactating cows


    Vitamin e beef sheep l.jpg

    Vitamin E - Beef & Sheep

    • Requirement IU/kg feed DM

      • All beef cattle 15 to 60

      • Pregnant and lactating cows20

      • Growing heifers25

      • All sheep15

    • Related to adequacy of selenium

    • Vitamin E not transferred across placenta to fetus

      • Dependent on colostrum for dietary source

    • Feedlot cattle

      • Feed 500 IU/day for 100 days.

      • Extend shelf life of beef cuts in the sales case


    Vitamin k l.jpg

    Vitamin K

    • Vitamin K is a generic term describing a group

    • of quinone compounds

      • Phylloquinone (vitamin K1)

        • Found in chloroplasts of plants

      • Menaquinone (vitamin K2)

        • Synthesized by rumen bacteria

      • Menadione (vitamin K3)

        • Synthetic form used for supplementing vit K


    Vitamin k32 l.jpg

    Vitamin K

    • Required for synthesis of four blood clotting factors

      • Prothrombin, factors VII, IX, and X

      • Involved in blood clot formation

    • No established supplemental requirement for ruminants

      • Microbial synthesis and vit K in feeds

    • Deficiency limited to:

      • Cattle consuming moldy sweet clover have

      • prolonged clotting of blood - “sweet clover disease”

      • A fungus produces dicoumarol that is a metabolic

      • antagonist of vitamin K

        • Stiffness and lameness

        • Uncontrolled bleeding – hematoma of tissues


    Other water soluble vitamins not required in diet of ruminants l.jpg

    Other Water Soluble VitaminsNot required in diet of ruminants

    • Ruminants with functional rumen obtain water

    • soluble vitamins from the digestive tract

  • Niacin-------- Supplementation may benefit high

  • Biotin ---- producing animals

  • Folic acid ---

  • Vitamin B12 – Synthesized in rumen if Co present,

  • not present in feeds

  • Vitamin C - Not synthesized in cattle until about 3 wks

  • Riboflavin

  • Pyridoxine

  • Pantothenic acid

  • Choline


  • Supplementation of b vitamins l.jpg

    Supplementation of B Vitamins

    • Prevent overt deficiency symptoms

      • Probably occur only in calves fed milk replacers

    • 2. Prevent subclinical deficiencies

      • Optimum production

      • Impact of stress on immune system

  • Niacin - May benefit early lactation cows

  • Biotin - May benefit herds with high incidence of

  • hoof lesions

  • Folic acid - Might increase milk production

  • Cobalt - B12 - (methylmalonyl CoA mutase) utilization

  • of propionate, foliate metabolism, milk yield

  • B-vitamins - immune function of stressed cattle


  • Thiamin l.jpg

    Thiamin

    • 1. Adequate quantities normally produced by the bacteria

    • in the rumen

    • 2. Inadequate thiamin

      • Thiaminase and thiamin antimetabolites produced

      • in ruminants fed rapidly fermented diets

        • Infrequently polioencephalomalacia (PEM),

        • a disorder of the central nervous system

        • develops

        • Retracted head, weakness, collapse, blindness

        • are symptoms

        • Respond to administration of thiamin


  • Login