Epithelial and connective tissues
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Epithelial and Connective Tissues. Epithelial tissues Classes Junctions Glands Connective Tissues Matrix Cells Types. 4 Types of Tissue. Epithelium Connective Muscle Nervous. Tissues: groups of cells closely associated that have a similar structure and perform a related function.

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Epithelial and connective tissues
Epithelial and Connective Tissues

  • Epithelial tissues

    • Classes

    • Junctions

    • Glands

  • Connective Tissues

    • Matrix

    • Cells

    • Types

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


4 Types of Tissue

  • Epithelium

  • Connective

  • Muscle

  • Nervous

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Tissues: groups of cells closely associated that have a similar structure and perform a related function

  • Four types of tissue

    • Epithelial = covering

    • Connective = support

    • Muscle = movement

    • Nervous = control

  • Most organs contain all 4 types

  • Connective tissue has non-living extra-cellular material (matrix) between its cells

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Epithelial tissues
EPITHELIAL TISSUES

  • Sheets of cells

  • Specialized contacts/cell junctions (see below)

  • Basal lamina: protein scaffolding secreted by epithelial cells

  • Basement membrane: reticular fibers (crossed collagen network) that supports epithelium--really associated connective tissue

  • Connective tissue support

  • Nutrients from capillaries in underlying connective tissue

  • Nerves pass through

  • Easily regenerates

  • E.g. skin, lining of gut, mucous membranes

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Classes of epithelia

Simple: just one layer or cell shape

Stratified: multiple layers and cell shapes

Classes of Epithelia

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Simple epithelia
Simple Epithelia

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Stratified epithelia

Squamous

E.g. epidermis

Transitional epithelium

E.g. urinary structures--bladder

Stretches from 6 cells to 3 cells thick as bladder fills and expands

Stratified Epithelia

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.



Quiz!!

E

Can You Identify the Classes of Epithelium?

D

A

B

C

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Cell junctions
Cell Junctions

  • Desmosome: binding spots between cells with proteins called cadherins

  • Tight junctions: impermeable

    • E.g. gut tube, doesn’t let enzymes from gut into blood stream

  • Gap junctions: tubes that let small molecules pass between cells

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.



Features of Apical Surface of Epithelium

  • Microvilli:(ex) in small intestine

    • Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane of apical epithelial cell

    • Increase surface area for absorption

  • Cilia: (ex) respiratory tubes

    • Whip-like, motile extensions

    • Moves mucus, etc. over epithelial surface 1-way

  • Flagella:(ex) spermatoza

    • Extra long cilia

    • Moves cell

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Features of Lateral Surface of Epithelium

  • Cells are connected to neighboring cells via:

    • Proteins-link cells together, interdigitate

    • Contour of cells-wavy contour fits together

    • Cell Junctions

      • Desmosomes-adhesive spots on lateral sides

      • Tight Junctions-at apical area, plasma membrane of adjacent cells fuse, nothing passes

      • Gap junction-spot-like junction occurring anywhere, lets small molecules pass

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Features of the Basal Surface of Epithelium

  • Basal lamina: supportive sheet between epithelium and underlying connective tissue

    • Selective filter

  • Basement membrane = basal lamina plus underlying reticular fiber layer

    • Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below

  • Sometimes the two are used interchangeably

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Name that Epithelial Feature!(name and location on cell)

3

  • Cilia

  • Tight junction

  • Microvilli

  • Basement membrane

3

1

1

2

2

4

4

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance

  • Exocrine Glands

    • Secrete substance onto body surface or into body cavity

    • Have ducts

    • E.G., salivary, mammary, pancreas, liver

  • Endocrine Glands

    • Secrete product into blood stream

    • Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle surrounded by secretory cells

    • Hormones travel to target organ to increase response

    • No ducts

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Connective tissues
CONNECTIVE TISSUES

  • “Areolar tissue” as model

  • Universal in body

  • Underlies epithelium, supports capillaries, small nn.

  • Always originates from mesenchyme

  • CELLS in MATRIX

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Extracellular matrix
Extracellular matrix

  • Fibers

    • Collagen gives structure

    • Reticular fibers (crossed collagen) gives order

    • Elastin gives elasticity

  • Ground substance

    • Jelly-like material made of sugar-protein molecules (proteoglycans)

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Cells of connective tissues
Cells of Connective Tissues

  • Fibroblasts make fibers

  • Immune cells in areolar tissue

    • Macrophages

    • Plasma cells

    • Mast cells

    • Neutrophils, Lymphocytes

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.



Loose connective tissues
“Loose” connective tissues

  • Adipose tissue mostly under skin and in mesenteries

  • Reticular: organized 3-D network of fibers that support lots of cells

    • E.g. marrow, spleen, lymph nodes

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Dense connective tissues
“Dense” Connective tissues

  • Irregular

    • Thick fibers running in many planes

    • E.g. dermis, fibrous capsules around organs

  • Regular

    • Aligned parallel fibers

    • Resists tension

    • E.g. tendon, ligaments, aponeuroses

    • Sometimes with elastic fibers (e.g. ligamentum nuchae)

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


Other connective tissues
Other Connective Tissues

  • Bone

  • Cartilage

  • Blood

Human Anatomy, Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.


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