Connective tissues
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Connective Tissues:. Blood Repair Membranes. Components of Blood. Cells: Formed Elements RBC (Erythrocytes; 95% ) WBC (Leucocytes) Platelets (Thrombocytes) Matrix: Plasma Water ( 91% ) Extracellular Proteins (7%) Ions, gases, nutrients (2%) – ground substance.

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Connective tissues

Connective Tissues:

Blood

Repair

Membranes


Components of blood

Components of Blood

  • Cells: Formed Elements

    • RBC (Erythrocytes; 95%)

    • WBC (Leucocytes)

    • Platelets (Thrombocytes)

  • Matrix: Plasma

    • Water (91%)

    • Extracellular Proteins (7%)

    • Ions, gases, nutrients (2%) – ground substance


Extracellular proteins

Extracellular proteins

  • Albumin - contributes to osmotic pressure of blood

  • Globulins - Antibodies, transport molecules, clotting factors

  • Fibrinogen - Clotting factor; produces fibrin (threadlike, blood-clot-forming protein)

  • Serum = Plasma minus clotting factors


Types of leucocytes

Types of Leucocytes

  • Granulocytes: Leukocytes containing large cytoplasmic granules

    • Neutrophils

    • Basophils

    • Eosinophils

  • Agranulocytes: Leukocytes lacking cytoplasmic granules

    • Lymphocytes

    • Monocytes


Granulocytes

Granulocytes

  • Neutrophils: Most common

    • spend 10-12 hours in blood

    • phagocytize microorganisms & foreign substances in tissues --> pus!!

  • Basophils (mast cells): Least common

    • release histamine & others promoting inflammation

    • release heparin which prevents clotting

  • Eosinophils

    • release inflammation suppressing compounds (antihistamine)

    • Produce chemicals which destroy worm parasites


Agranulocytes

Agranulocytes

  • Lymphocytes: Smallest WBC; immune response;

    • produce antibodies & chemicals to destroy foreign cells

    • contribute to allergic reactions

    • reject tissue grafts

  • Monocytes: Largest WBC; become macrophages in tissues

    • Phagocytize bacteria, dead cells, cell fragments

    • Present phagocytized particles to lymphocytes -> activation


Tissue repair

Tissue Repair

  • Inflammation

    • Macrophages, injured cells, mast cells release inflammatory chemicals

    • Capillaries dilate; permeability increases

    • Proteins, leucocytes, blood leak into injured area.

    • clot forms


Tissue repair1

Tissue Repair

  • Organization

    • Fragile, capillary-laden tissue grows into wounded area

    • Fibroblasts proliferate; stimulate growth & new collagen fibers

    • Macrophages digest blood clot


Tissue repair2

Tissue Repair

  • Regeneration

    • Basal lamina grows under the scab & epithelium thickens

    • Connective tissue contracts and thickens = scar tissue


Tissue origins

Tissue Origins


Membranes

Membranes


Fascia ct framework

Fascia: CT framework

  • Superficial

    • Connects skin to organs

    • areolar & adipose CT

  • Deep

    • Connects organs to body wall; connects to bones & muscles

    • Irregular CT

  • Subserous

    • Connects deep to serous membranes

    • Areolar CT


Membranes1

Membranes

  • Composition: All consist of ET supported by CT

  • Membranes line body surfaces

    • Mucous

    • Serous

    • Cutaneous

    • Synovial


Mucous membranes

Mucous Membranes

  • Line passageways and chambers that communicate with exterior

    • Digestive, respiratory, reproductive, urinary

    • Kept ET moist

      • reduces friction

      • facilitate absorption or secretion

    • Thin ET over areolar CT


Serous membranes

Serous Membranes

  • Separate viscera

    • 3 types:

      • Pleura, peritoneum, pericardium

    • Thin

    • Prevent friction between neighboring organs

    • Mesothelium supported by areolar CT


Cutanoeous membrane

Cutanoeous Membrane

  • Skin!

  • Thick!

  • Relatively water proof and dry

    • Stratified squamous ET over areolar CT over dense irregular CT


Synovial membranes

Synovial Membranes

  • Joint capsule membranes

    • Lubricates joint cavities surrounding adjacent bones

    • Major layer of areolar CT

      • matrix = collagen fibers & “cement” + incomplete layer of macrophages and fibroblasts (derived from ET)


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