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Effective Presentations D. Gordon E. Robertson, PhD, FCSB Biomechanics, Laboratory, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada Contents Effective presentations should consist of five parts. Introduction Background/Theory/Review of Literature Methods

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Effective presentations l.jpg
Effective Presentations

D. Gordon E. Robertson, PhD, FCSB

Biomechanics, Laboratory,

School of Human Kinetics,

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada


Contents l.jpg
Contents

Effective presentations should consist of five parts.

  • Introduction

  • Background/Theory/Review of Literature

  • Methods

  • Results & Discussion

  • Conclusions/Future Directions


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • Must answer the question why is/was this research conducted or necessary

  • Includes purpose of the study

  • Hypothesis(es) being tested

  • Short and long term objectives may be identified

  • What is the “question”?


Background l.jpg
Background

  • Includes “essential” review of the literature

  • Should include basis (thesis) for any hypotheses

  • Keep it brief

  • Theoretical framework may be presented if necessary


Methods l.jpg
Methods

  • Sample size and population described−give statistical power, if known

  • Show figure of experimental setup

  • Outline of methods, refer to literature if possible

  • Describe experimental protocol

  • In a proposal include statistical methods, in a defense save these for results and discussion

  • Another researcher should be able to duplicate study from description


Results l.jpg
Results

  • Consists of tables, figures and descriptive statistics

  • Be sure to include all relevant labels and units of measure

  • Identify any codes or abbreviations used in figures and tables

  • Point out most significant results (only a few if there are time constraints)


Discussion l.jpg
Discussion

  • Interpret the results in light of the objectives and hypotheses outlined in the Introduction

  • Presumably you can answer the question(s) posed in the Introduction

  • Present and interpret the major statistical findings especially any “significant differences”

  • Relate your study to the existing literature


Conclusions l.jpg
Conclusions

  • List the most important statistically significant findings

  • Any statement must be supported by the data you collected

  • Do not extrapolate your findings

  • Avoid weak statements (may, might, seems, etc.)

  • Use affirmative language and active verbs

  • Should answer the “question”


Visual presentation l.jpg
Visual Presentation

The following slides show various good and bad layouts.


Too many figures and cluttered placement l.jpg
Too Many Figures and Cluttered Placement

  • Instrumentation in Biomechanics

    • Photocells and timers

    • Videography

    • Electromyographs

    • Accelerometers


Slightly better l.jpg
Slightly Better

  • Instrumentation in Biomechanics

    • Photocells and timers

    • Videography

    • Electromyographs

    • Accelerometers


Keep graphics to maximum of four or five l.jpg
Keep Graphics toMaximum of Four or Five

Bortec system

Noraxon system

Delsys electrodes

Mega system


Too cluttered l.jpg

Control points

Too Cluttered?

EMG cables

Monitor

Subject

Keyboard

Cine or Video camera

Force platform

Trial number


Better l.jpg
Better

EMG cables

Cine or Video camera

Force platform


Too many levels of bullets l.jpg
Too Many Levels of Bullets

Manual goniometer

  • Angular position

    • Protractor

    • Goniometer

      • Manual

      • Electrical

      • Photo-optical

  • Linear acceleration

    • Accelerometry

      • Strain-gauge

      • Piezoelectric

      • Piezoresistive

        • Calibrated

        • Uncalibrated

    • Videography

      • VHS

      • Beta

      • CCD

Miniature accelerometers


Better16 l.jpg
Better

Manual goniometer

  • Linear position

    • Ruler, tape measure, optical

  • Angular position

    • Protractor, inclinometer, goniometer

  • Linear acceleration

    • Accelerometry, videography

  • Angular acceleration

    • Videography

Miniature accelerometers


Too much text and fonts too small l.jpg
Too Much Text and Fonts Too Small

The Kinetic Wedge was designed to place the first ray in a greater plantar flexed position and the proximal phalanx more dorsiflexed relative to the first metatarsal. Clinicians believed that the limitation of the joint is bypassed with the joint at this initial position, thereby increasing the ability of the first MTP joint to dorsiflex (Figure 4).

Podiatric clinicians suggest that FHL can result in slight disruptions of the inverted pendulum's centre of gravity (CoG) through the sagittal plane (Winter, 1995; Dananberg, 1986, 1993). According to clinicians, FHL leads to compensatory postural changes such as a forward lean to restore the pendulum (Figure 3). Clinicians suggest this FHL compensatory action may be a contributor to low back pain.

Figure 3. Compensatory forward lean

The podiatric community uses custom foot orthoses (CFO) with the Kinetic Wedge modification (Langer) to improve MTP joint function and gait posture of individuals with FHL (Figure 5).


About right l.jpg
About Right?

Causes of motion

  • Forces and moments of force

  • Work, energy and power

  • Impulse and momentum

  • Inverse Dynamics derives forces and moments from kinematics and body segment parameters (mass, centre of gravity, and moment of inertia)


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Background Too Complex and Too Distracting

  • Weight (W)

  • Ground reaction force (Fg)


Better but still too distracting l.jpg
Better but stillToo Distracting

  • Weight (W)

  • Ground reaction force (Fg)


Use a simple background and maintain throughout l.jpg
Use a Simple Background and Maintain Throughout

  • Weight (W)

  • Ground reaction force (Fg)


Background can be dark or light l.jpg
Background can beDark or Light

  • Weight (W)

  • Ground reaction force (Fg)


Transitions should be simple and consistent l.jpg
Transitions should be Simple and Consistent

  • Weight (W)

  • Ground reaction force (Fg)


Use a different transition for effect but sparingly l.jpg
Use a Different Transition for Effect but Sparingly

  • Weight (W)

  • Ground reaction force (Fg)


Keep the fonts simple presentation computer may not have your font installed l.jpg
Keep the Fonts Simple(presentation computer may not have your font installed)

  • Female subject

  • Laboratory walkway

  • Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast)

  • IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike

  • ITO = ipsilateral toe-off

  • CFS = contralateral foot-strike

  • CTO = contralateral toe-off


Many presentations use san serif only l.jpg
Many Presentations use San Serif Only

  • Female subject

  • Laboratory walkway

  • Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast)

  • IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike

  • ITO = ipsilateral toe-off

  • CFS = contralateral foot-strike

  • CTO = contralateral toe-off


Use text colours for emphasis one or two t h r e e is maximum l.jpg
Use Text Colours for Emphasis(One or Two, Three is Maximum)

  • Female subject

  • Laboratory walkway

  • Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast)

  • IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike

  • ITO = ipsilateral toe-off

  • CFS = contralateral foot-strike

  • CTO = contralateral toe-off


Use colour coordinated templates high contrast text background not like this one l.jpg
Use Colour Coordinated TemplatesHigh Contrast (Text/Background){not like this one}

  • Female subject

  • Laboratory walkway

  • Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast)

  • IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike

  • ITO = ipsilateral toe-off

  • CFS = contralateral foot-strike

  • CTO = contralateral toe-off


Textbooks use sans serif e g arial for titles serif e g times for text l.jpg
Textbooks use Sans Serif (e.g., Arial) for Titles, Serif (e.g., Times) for Text

  • Female subject

  • Laboratory walkway

  • Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast)

  • IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike

  • ITO = ipsilateral toe-off

  • CFS = contralateral foot-strike

  • CTO = contralateral toe-off


Proper font size is important 24 to 32 points below are 18 and 14 l.jpg
Proper Font Size is Important (e.g., Times) for Text(24 to 32 points, Below are 18 and 14)

  • Female subject

  • Laboratory walkway

  • Speed was 1.77 m/s (fast)

  • IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike

  • ITO = ipsilateral toe-off

  • CFS = contralateral foot-strike

  • CTO = contralateral toe-off


Should be approximately one slide per minute l.jpg
Should be Approximately (e.g., Times) for TextOne Slide per Minute

  • The use of dual slide projectors (now uncommon) is NOT recommended.

  • If used, make sure there are two slides for each transition, otherwise you may get out of synchrony.

34


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35mm Slides (e.g., Times) for Text

  • It is advisable to number your slides to ensure correct ordering and to permit quick loading.

  • Use of “thumbprints” are recommended to ensure that slides are projected correctly.

  • Slides go in projector upside down.

  • Thumbprints don’t actually appear in the slide.

35


Clipart l.jpg
Clipart (e.g., Times) for Text

  • Text only presentations are boring.

  • Clipart adds interest but can be distracting.

  • Don’t use too many--one or two.


Tables and histograms l.jpg
Tables and Histograms (e.g., Times) for Text

  • Tables should be used to summarize numerical data.

  • Histograms can be used if there are too few numbers for a table.


Table too detailed l.jpg
Table Too Detailed (e.g., Times) for Text


Still too many and difficult to read l.jpg
Still Too Many and Difficult to Read (e.g., Times) for Text


Still too many but readable l.jpg
Still Too Many but Readable (e.g., Times) for Text


About right or less l.jpg
About Right or Less? (e.g., Times) for Text


Keep number of bars small l.jpg
Keep Number of Bars Small (e.g., Times) for Text


Background box helps l.jpg
Background Box Helps (e.g., Times) for Text


Keep figures big l.jpg

Flexion (e.g., Times) for Text

Extension

Trial: 2SFN3

Ang. velocity

Moment

Power

Flexors

Extensors

H1

Concentric

H3

H2

Eccentric

ITO

IFS

CTO

CFS

ITO

Time

Keep Figures Big


Slide42 l.jpg

Including (e.g., Times) for TextText Focuses Your Audience

Flexion

Extension

Trial: 2SFN3

Ang. velocity

Moment

  • Positive work by flexors to swing leg

Power

Flexors

Extensors

  • Positive work by extensors to extend thigh

H1

Concentric

H3

  • Negative work by flexors to control extension

H2

Eccentric

ITO

IFS

CTO

CFS

ITO

Time


Slide43 l.jpg

Colours (e.g., Times) for Text Help to Distinguish Different Items in Figures

Flexion

Extension

Trial: 2SFN3

Ang. velocity

Moment

  • Positive work by flexors to swing leg

Power

Flexors

Extensors

  • Positive work by extensors to extend thigh

H1

Concentric

H3

  • Negative work by flexors to control extension

H2

Eccentric

ITO

IFS

CTO

CFS

ITO

Time


Slide44 l.jpg

Include (e.g., Times) for TextLabels and Units in Figures and Tables

10

Flexion

0

Extension

Trial: 2SFN3

-10

Ang. velocity

Moment

  • Positive work by flexors to swing leg

Power

100

Flexors

0

Power (W) Moment (N.m) A ng. Vel. (rad/s)

Extensors

  • Positive work by extensors to extend thigh

-100

H1

Concentric

H3

100

0

  • Negative work by flexors to control extension

H2

Eccentric

-100

IFS

CTO

CFS

ITO

CFS

ITO

-200

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Time (s)


Powerpoint slides permit animations and multimedia l.jpg
PowerPoint Slides (e.g., Times) for Text(Permit Animations and Multimedia)

  • Bulleted text can be sequenced.

  • So can other elements such as figures, tables and arrows.

  • If text and arrows are synchronized the text must be in separate windows and grouped.

  • If left ungrouped you need to press a key for each element to appear.

5


Powerpoint slides permit animations and multimedia46 l.jpg
PowerPoint Slides (e.g., Times) for Text(Permit Animations and Multimedia)

  • Bulleted text can be sequenced.

  • So can other elements such as figures, tables and arrows.

  • If text and arrows are synchronized the text must be in separate windows and grouped.

  • If left ungrouped you need to press a key for each element to appear.

  • Don’t use too many effects, unless there is a good reason.

5


Slide47 l.jpg

10 (e.g., Times) for Text

Dorsiflexion

0

Plantar flexion

Trial: 2SFN3

-10

Ang. velocity

Moment

Power

100

Dorsiflexors

0

Power (W) Moment (N.m) Ang. Vel. (rad/s)

Plantar flexors

-100

100

Concentric

0

Eccentric

-100

IFS

CTO

CFS

ITO

CFS

ITO

-200

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Time (s)

Ungrouped Elements Require Extra Mouse Clicks

  • Dorsiflexors produce dorsiflexion during swing

  • Plantar flexors control dorsiflexion

A2

A1

  • Large burst of power by plantar flexors for push-off


Slide48 l.jpg

10 (e.g., Times) for Text

0

-10

100

0

Power (W) Moment (N.m) Ang. Vel. (rad/s)

-100

100

0

-100

-200

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Time (s)

Grouped Elements are More Efficient

Extension

Flexion

Trial: 2SFN3

Ang. velocity

  • Negative work by flexors to control extension prior to foot-strike

Moment

Power

Extensors

Flexors

  • Burst of power to cushion landing

Concentric

K2

  • Negative work by extensors to control flexion at push-off

K4

K1

K3

Eccentric

IFS

CTO

CFS

ITO

CFS

ITO


Slide49 l.jpg

Be Sure to (e.g., Times) for TextTest the Animation Thoroughly

10

Flexion

0

Extension

Trial: 2SFN3

-10

Ang. velocity

Moment

  • Positive work by flexors to swing leg

Power

100

Flexors

0

Power (W) Moment (N.m) A ng. Vel. (rad/s)

Extensors

  • Positive work by extensors to extend thigh

-100

H1

Concentric

H3

100

0

  • Negative work by flexors to control extension

H2

Eccentric

-100

IFS

CTO

CFS

ITO

CFS

ITO

-200

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Time (s)


Multimedia items add interest but create large files l.jpg
Multimedia Items (e.g., Times) for Text Add Interest but Create Large Files

  • Be sure the file is included with your presentation

  • Zip disks, CD-ROMs and USB (Pen) drives can hold large files

  • Keep the clip short and allow continuous play


Avoid too many types of media l.jpg
Avoid Too Many Types of Media (e.g., Times) for Text

  • Video

  • Overheads

  • Handouts

  • Slides

  • Computer projections

  • Chalkboards

  • Whiteboards


Powerpoint movement keyboard shortcuts l.jpg
PowerPoint (e.g., Times) for TextMovement Keyboard Shortcuts

  • F1 = help with shortcut

  • Esc = end show

  • Home = first slide

  • End = last slide

  • N, Up, Right, PageUp, Spacebar, Enter or LeftMouse = forward one slide

  • P, Down, Left, PageDown, Backspace = backward one slide

  • number and Enter = go to slide number


Other keyboard shortcuts l.jpg
Other Keyboard Shortcuts (e.g., Times) for Text

  • Right Mouse click = menu

  • A = hide/show arrow

  • B = black screen

  • W = white screen

  • Ctrl-A = activate arrow

  • Ctrl-P = activate pen

  • Ctrl-H = hide pen or arrow

  • E = erase pen drawings


Questions l.jpg
Questions? (e.g., Times) for Text

Answers?

Comments?


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