Ocn 5401
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OCN 5401. Chapter 3 Heat Transfer Instructor: Dr. George A. Maul [email protected] / X 7453. Heat Flux (W·m -2 = J·s -1 ·m -2 ). Q s – radiation from the sun Q b – back radiation from Earth Q e – evaporative heat loss or gain Q h – sensible heat loss or gain

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OCN 5401

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Ocn 5401

OCN 5401

Chapter 3

Heat Transfer

Instructor: Dr. George A. Maul

[email protected] / X 7453


Heat flux w m 2 j s 1 m 2

Heat Flux(W·m-2 = J·s-1·m-2)

  • Qs – radiation from the sun

  • Qb – back radiation from Earth

  • Qe – evaporative heat loss or gain

  • Qh – sensible heat loss or gain

  • Qv – advective heat loss or gain

Qt = Qs – Qb – Qe – Qh – Qv


Radiation paths

Radiation Paths

irradiance

reflected

V1

V2

scattered

refracted

absorbed

Index of Refraction (η2/η1) = V1/V2

ηwater-air = 1.333 (at 20°C)

transmitted

Willebrord Snell


Solar spectrum

Solar Spectrum

Max Planck


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CSUN: What is the solar constant?

where

If TSUN = 5775K, QSUN = ?


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The solar constant isn’t constant!

SOHO


Albedo

Albedo


Distribution of water and land

Distribution of Water and Land

Solar Heating

Inflow = Outflow

CSUN(1-A)πr2 = 4πr2σT4

If A=0.3 and CSUN=1367 W·m-2, what is T=?


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Earth’s mean temperature balance

requires an extra term

QGHE: What is the greenhouse effect?

TEarth: What is Earth’s temperature?

A: Is Earth’s albedo fixed?


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How would Earth’s temperature change if the albedo changed from 30% to 29%?

minus

If TEARTH(A=30%) = 288K, TEARTH(A=29%) = ?


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Relative Humidity (RH) and Saturation Vapor Pressure (es)

Example: RH = ?

Tair = 30°; Tdew point = 10°

es = 39 mb; eair = 12 mb


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Evaporation from the Sea Surface

Qe = ρwaterE·L

E is in meters per second, and latent heat of evaporation

L= 2495 x 103 J·kg-1


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Seasonal Thermocline


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Seasonal Sea Level


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Satellite Imagery

Infrared Image


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Upper few millimeters of the Sea Surface


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Sea Surface Temperature (SST) – Skin Temperature and Bulk Temperature


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Chapter 3

Questions?


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