Solutions and mechanical mixtures
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SOLUTIONS AND MECHANICAL MIXTURES. The Particle Theory. All matter is composed of tiny particles. Size and shape vary. All particles of pure substance are exactly the same size. All particles of one substance are the same Salt particles are different from pepper particles.

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Solutions and mechanical mixtures

SOLUTIONS AND MECHANICAL MIXTURES


The particle theory
The Particle Theory

  • All matter is composed of tiny particles.

    • Size and shape vary.

    • All particles of pure substance are exactly the same size.

  • All particles of one substance are the same

    • Salt particles are different from pepper particles


  • The particle theory1
    The Particle Theory

    • There are spaces between particles.

    • Particles are always moving – the more energy they have, the faster they move.

      •  temp the faster the particles move

  • There are forces of attraction between particles.


  • The particle theory2
    The Particle Theory

    Energy is transferred between particles by moving particles hitting each other and either speeding up or slowing down.

    Matterhas particles

    Moving particles

    Attraction between particles

    Same particles throughout

    Spaces between particles

    M2ASS


    Classification of matter
    Classification of Matter

    Any substance or material that has mass and occupies space.

    matter

    mixtures

    pure substances

    mechanical mixture

    (heterogeneous)

    solutions

    (homogeneous)

    Matter can exist in 3 states:

    solid, liquid and gas


    Matter
    Matter

    Solid

    • Particles are close together and locked together into a pattern.

    • Attractive forces are very strong.

    • Particles move, but only vibrate in one place.


    Matter1
    Matter

    Liquid

    • Particles are slightly farther apart

    • Attractive forces are weaker

    • Particles are able to slide past one another


    Matter2
    Matter

    Gas

    • Particles are far apart.

    • Attractive forces are weakest.

    • Particles are able to move in any direction.


    Pure substances
    Pure Substances

    • Contain only one kind of particle.

    • All samples have same properties (big or small).

    • Only a few are found in nature (raw material).

      e.g.diamond, sugar, aluminum foil


    Mixtures
    Mixtures

    • Contain 2 or more pure substances.

    • Any combination of solids, liquids and gases.

    • Almost all natural substances are mixtures of pure substances.

      e.g. pop – mixture of liquid water, solid sugar, and CO2


    Mixtures1
    Mixtures

    pure substance

    pure substance

    pure substance

    pure substance

    solution (homogeneous)

    mechanical mixture (heterogeneous)


    Mixtures2
    Mixtures

    • Homogeneous (“same kind”)

      • A solution

      • Particles of 2 or more pure substances mix completely

      • Feel and look like one substance

      • Properties of sample always the same

        e.g. salt and water

        steel (iron, O2 and C)


    Mixtures3
    Mixtures

    • Heterogeneous (“different kinds”)

      • A mechanical mixture.

      • 2 or more substances can be seen or felt.

      • Each sample will have different properties.

        e.g. granola, concrete


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