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Mixtures and Solutions. Mixtures. two or more substances that are not chemically united and that exist in no fixed proportion to each other. Salad, Tea, Milk, Soda, Spaghetti, Sand, Stew, Concrete, Raison Bran and most Rocks. examples. Mixtures. Heterogeneous. Homogenous.

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Mixtures and Solutions

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Mixtures and Solutions


Mixtures

two or more substances that are not chemically united and that exist in no fixed proportion to each other

Salad, Tea, Milk, Soda, Spaghetti, Sand, Stew, Concrete, Raison Bran and most Rocks


examples


Mixtures

Heterogeneous

Homogenous

Salad, gravel, sand, spaghetti

Suspension

Solutions

Colloid

  • .1 – 2 nm

  • Transparent

  • Won’t separate

  • Ex. Salt water.

  • Properties can change

  • 2 – 1000 nm

  • Murky or opaque

  • Ex. Fog, Milk

  • Hard to filter

  • 1000nm - .000001 m

  • Murky or opaque

  • Blood, aerosol

  • Can filter easily, will settle out.


Heterogeneous Mixtures are easily separated by physical methods

For example, if you spill paper clips in your cereal, you made a mixture. You can remover the clips with a magnet.


How could you separate the parts of these mixtures?


The key is that mixtures can be separated by PHYSICAL means


Like

or


You can also use these


Or this, in the correct situation


Or, in the case of the Concrete


Homogenous mixture are a different story.

Can you use simple tools to separate the stuff in milk or cola?


Here is a homogenous mixture of different metals


Unlike a heterogeneous mixture where the parts that were mixed in together are easy to see and separate, Homogenous Mixtures are uniformly mixed and it is very hard to see the individual parts.


Heterogeneous Mixtures Come in Three Main FormsThe First is Made of Small, but not Tiny particles mixed in a liquid or gas. It is called a SUSPENSION


This is suspension

After an hour

Just stirred

After 10 min.


This is a Colloid

  • The particles in a colloid are much smaller than in a suspension, They don’t settle and the block most of the light going through the mixture making it murky or even opaque.


The next class of mixture is the Solution.


  • A solution is a mixture of two or more substances. Usually liquids, but not always.

  • It is “homogenous” meaning the same throughout.

  • It is hard to separate because the particles are so small.

  • In this one, you can see that it is the same throughout.


A solution has 2 parts

  • A Solvent – usually a liquid (but not always)

  • A Solute which can be liquid or solid, but mostly solid.


Solvent

H2O

Solute

Sugar

Stir to create solution


Solutions

TEA

Coffee

Colored liquids


Common Examples of Solutions

  • Salt water

  • Sugar water

  • Milk (a special type of solution called a “colloid”)

  • Tea

  • Coffee

  • Soda

  • Juice

  • Air

  • Pool water


Unlike the easy to separate heterogeneous mixtures, homogenous mixtures require more work to separate.


You can distill the solution


You can also use VERY fine filters such as this “membrane” filter


Now, you won’t be mixed up about mixtures.


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