Asexual reproduction
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Asexual Reproduction. Chapter 5.2. Asexual Reproduction. Main points Only one parent is required Asexually produced offspring, or clones, have identical genetic information to each other and the parent Reproduce quickly and in large numbers. 5.2 Asexual Reproduction.

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Asexual Reproduction

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

Chapter 5.2


Asexual reproduction1

Asexual Reproduction

  • Main points

    • Only one parent is required

    • Asexually produced offspring, or clones, have identical genetic information to each other and the parent

    • Reproduce quickly and in large numbers


5 2 asexual reproduction

5.2 Asexual Reproduction

  • Reminder, most (~95%) of the time the cell is in interphase (doing its job, growing, surviving, etc.)

  • Reminder, when the cell gets too big (If its volume outgrows its surface area), it must divide/reproduce


5 2 asexual reproduction1

5.2 Asexual Reproduction

  • is how the cells of multi-cellular organisms (like your body cells) reproduce and multiply

  • is a common method of reproduction among single-celled organisms, such as the paramecium

  • clone– offspring isan identical genetic copy of its parent

    • E.g. used in agriculture and research to copy desired organisms, tissues and genes


Types of asexual reproduction

Types of Asexual Reproduction

  • Binary fission

  • Budding

  • Fragmentation

  • Vegetative reproduction

  • Spore formation


Asexual reproduction

Binary fission

– a single cell (unicellular) splits into identical copies

(Ex. Bacteria)

Video


Budding

Budding

  • can occur in unicellular or multi-cellular organisms. Buds develop into a new organism (Ex. Hydra)


Fragmentation

Fragmentation

  • Part of an organism breaks off due to injury

  • The part grows into a clone of the parent

    Example: Starfish, milfoil


Vegetative reproduction

Vegetative reproduction

  • special cells in plants that develop into structures that form new plants identical to the parent (Ex. Spider plants, grafting fruit trees, runners and rhizomes, tubers and bulbs)


Spore formation

Spore formation

  • some bacteria, micro-organisms and fungi can form spores - single cells that can grow into a whole new organism

  • (ex. Penicillium)


Asexual reproduction2

Asexual Reproduction

See page 175


Human assisted cloning

Human Assisted Cloning

  • Two types: reproductive and therapeutic cloning

  • Reproductive cloning - purpose is to produce a genetic duplicate of an existing or dead organism.

    Steps involved (adult DNA cloning) :

    • Remove nucleus from an egg cell

    • A mammary gland cell is removed from an adult female

    • Electricity fuses mammary and egg cell

    • Fused cell begins dividing

    • Dividing embryo is inserted into surrogate mother

See pages 176 - 177


Reproductive cloning

Reproductive Cloning


Therapeutic cloning

Cloning - debate

Therapeutic cloning

  • purpose is to correct health problems

    • Stem cells

      • cells that can become different types of cells

      • can be used to replace cellsdamaged from injuries or disease

    • Diabetes, spinal injuries, Parkinson’sdisease are only a few that canbenefit from stem cell therapy

    • Controversial because the beststem cells are from embryos whichare destroyed when harvesting cells

See pages 177 - 178


Therapeutic cloning1

Therapeutic Cloning


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