Unit 2 tools and techniques of the biologist
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Unit 2: Tools and Techniques of the Biologist. What we use and how we use it!. A. Scientific Method / Inquiry 1. Defining the ______________ What are you testing on what? ex: What is the effect of testing sugar on heart rate? 2. Formulating a ____________

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Unit 2 tools and techniques of the biologist

Unit 2: Tools and Techniques of the Biologist

What we use and how we use it!


A. Scientific Method / Inquiry

1. Defining the ______________

What are you testing on what?

ex: What is the effect of testing sugar on heart rate?

2. Formulating a ____________

“If…Then” statement

ex: If sugar is given to a student, then their heart rate will

increase

If the _____________________ is changed,

then the ___________________ will change

Remember the hypothesis does not have to be correct – many great scientific discoveries have been made because the hypothesis was incorrect.

What is important is that you write the hypothesis in the correct format.

DO NOT use the words I, WE, or YOU.


3. Testing the Hypothesis, ___________________

a. Independent Variable

The __________________ is the factor that the experimenter

changes to see an effect

b. Dependant Variable

The __________________ is the factor that is affected by the

independent variable

c. Control

The ________________ is the experimental setup without the

independent variable

The control offers a source of ____________ to see the effect

d. Control Factors

_________________ are other variable that are kept constant

e. Reproducible Procedure

To have a valid experiment the steps of the procedure have

to be clear and understandable


ex: What is the effect of sugar on heart rate?

a. Independent Variable

Amount of sugar

b. Dependant Variable

Heart Rate

c. Control

The person not given sugar

d. Control Factors

Temperature, Exercise, Age, Gender, Type of Sugar

e. Reproducible Procedure

How much sugar?

How do you measure heart rate?

When do you measure the heart rate?

Who are you measuring?

How many people are you measuring?

etc.


4. Observing and Measuring

Observations are the data collect while doing the experiment

Making graphs and charts to organize your data

5. Analyzing and Drawing Conclusion

Inference are the ideas and reasoning based on the

observation

Conclusions relate back to the hypothesis to explain either

why it happened or why it did not happen

6. Theories and Laws

Every experiment can be made better by ______________ or

__________ the _____________

With years of repeated testing with similar results theories and

eventually laws can be developed


B. Measurements

1. SI Units = __________________

We use the metric system because it is based on _____

Converting units is much easier because all you have to do is

move the decimal point.

a. Length – ________, _______, ________, _________

1 meter = _____ centimeters

1 centimeter = _____ millimeters

1 millimeter = ______ micrometers

b. Mass – _________, _________

c. Volume – _________, ________, __________ (cc)

d. Temperature - ___________


2.5cm = 25mm

2.5cm = 25mm

9cm = 90mm

6cm = 60mm

4.5cm = 45mm

373.4g

5ml

20ml

9ml

24ml

2ml

16ml

-2C

49C

8C

70C

-8C

42C


2. Graphing

Graphing makes a picture of the data

Graphing makes it easier to interpret the data and see general

trends

Making Graphs:

1. Label the axes.

The x-axis should be labeled with the __________________

The y-axis should be labeled with the __________________

2. Scale both axes. Each box has to represent the same amount. Start at zero and count by 2s, 5s, or even 10s. DON’T UST PUT THE NUMBERS THEY GIVE YOU!

3. Plot your points. Circle the points. Connect the points.

4. Title your graph.

5. Answer any questions based upon the graph.


C. Equipment

1. Compound Light Microscopes

a. __________

b. ________________

c. __________

d. ______________________

e. ____________

f. Mirror / Illuminator, Body,

Stage, Base

g. ________________

Total Mag = Ocular Mag x Objective Mag = 10 x 40 = 400

h. Resolution

Resolution is the ability to distinguish between 2 different

items


2. Other Types of Microscopes

a. Simple - 1 lens = magnifying lens

b. Stereo - use both eyes, 3D image, used for

micro-dissections

c. Electron Microscope – extremely high magnification and

resolution


3. Centrifuge

Centrifuges separate materials based on density by spinning

very rapidly

4. Tissue Culture

Tissue culture is the growth of cells in the lab


5. Chromatography

Chromatography is the separation of pigments (colors) in a

sample


5. Electrophoresis

__________________ is the separation of DNA pieces using

electricity.

It make a DNA fingerprint  specific pattern


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