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Tools of a Biologist. Microscopes: number one tool of a biologist. Micro= Scope= Small -to view. A microscope is an instrument used to view very small objects. In biology we will use it to view…. living cells and unicellular organisms.

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Microscopes number one tool of a biologist
Microscopes: number one tool of a biologist

  • Micro= Scope=

    • Small -to view

A microscope is an instrument used to view very small objects.

In biology we will use it to view….

living cells and unicellular organisms.



There are 3 types of microscopes used in biology:

1. Compound light microscope

-Compound-

look through 2 lenses at the same time in order to properly magnify the organism.


Total magnification:

low power:

ocular lens x10

low objective x4

--------------

x40

medium power:

ocular lens x10

low objective x10

--------------

x100

high power:

ocular lens x10

low objective x40

--------------

x400


Compound light microscope:

-light

-light must pass through the

diaphragm and through the

object.

-object must be “thin” or

transparent so the light can

pass through it.

-Diaphragm:

regulates the amount of light that can pass through.

-Best setting of the diaphragm is #2


Staining
Staining

The purpose is to:

add color to a cell so that the cell and its structures can be seen more clearly through a microscope.


Limit of resolution
Limit of Resolution

-is the point at which you see an item most clearly.

Any magnification above or below that point will results in the object looking blurry.


Type 2 stereoscope
Type 2: Stereoscope

-Used to view the surface of objects which are too large for light to pass through them.

-Uses 2 lights to illuminate the surface of the object.

-Stereo means

“3 dimensional”

-Provides a 3-D detailed look at the surface of an object.


  • -magnifies between x10 to x60


  • Type 3 electron microscopes
    Type 3: Electron Microscopes

    Uses electrons to form an image and NOT light

    Has a very high limit of resolution.

    -can see items very clearly at any magnification

    -can magnify up to 500,000x and still be clear

    • Object is placed in a vacuum

      • No air

      • No oxygen

      • Organism is DEAD


    Two types of electron microscopes:

    1. T.E.M. ~ Transmission Electron Microscope

    • Produces a 2-D, black and white image of inside of a cell.


    Produces a 3-D, black and white image of the surface of an object.

    2. S.E.M. ~ Scanning Electron Microscope


    Additional tools of a biologist
    Additional tools of a biologist:

    Tool used to separate the components of a mixture by their different densities.

    • Chromatography:



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