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Tools of a Biologist. Microscopes: number one tool of a biologist. Micro= Scope= Small -to view. A microscope is an instrument used to view very small objects. In biology we will use it to view…. living cells and unicellular organisms.

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microscopes number one tool of a biologist
Microscopes: number one tool of a biologist
  • Micro= Scope=
    • Small -to view

A microscope is an instrument used to view very small objects.

In biology we will use it to view….

living cells and unicellular organisms.

slide4

There are 3 types of microscopes used in biology:

1. Compound light microscope

-Compound-

look through 2 lenses at the same time in order to properly magnify the organism.

slide6

Total magnification:

low power:

ocular lens x10

low objective x4

--------------

x40

medium power:

ocular lens x10

low objective x10

--------------

x100

high power:

ocular lens x10

low objective x40

--------------

x400

slide7

Compound light microscope:

-light

-light must pass through the

diaphragm and through the

object.

-object must be “thin” or

transparent so the light can

pass through it.

-Diaphragm:

regulates the amount of light that can pass through.

-Best setting of the diaphragm is #2

staining
Staining

The purpose is to:

add color to a cell so that the cell and its structures can be seen more clearly through a microscope.

limit of resolution
Limit of Resolution

-is the point at which you see an item most clearly.

Any magnification above or below that point will results in the object looking blurry.

type 2 stereoscope
Type 2: Stereoscope

-Used to view the surface of objects which are too large for light to pass through them.

-Uses 2 lights to illuminate the surface of the object.

-Stereo means

“3 dimensional”

-Provides a 3-D detailed look at the surface of an object.

slide12

-look through

      • 2 ocular lenses
  • -magnifies between x10 to x60
type 3 electron microscopes
Type 3: Electron Microscopes

Uses electrons to form an image and NOT light

Has a very high limit of resolution.

-can see items very clearly at any magnification

-can magnify up to 500,000x and still be clear

  • Object is placed in a vacuum
    • No air
    • No oxygen
    • Organism is DEAD
slide14

Two types of electron microscopes:

1. T.E.M. ~ Transmission Electron Microscope

  • Produces a 2-D, black and white image of inside of a cell.
slide16

Produces a 3-D, black and white image of the surface of an object.

2. S.E.M. ~ Scanning Electron Microscope

additional tools of a biologist
Additional tools of a biologist:

Tool used to separate the components of a mixture by their different densities.

  • Chromatography:
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