Tools of a biologist
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Tools of a Biologist. Microscopes: number one tool of a biologist. Micro=Scope= Small-to view. A microscope is an instrument used to view very small objects. In biology we will use it to view…. living cells and unicellular organisms.

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Tools of a Biologist

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Tools of a biologist

Tools of a Biologist


Microscopes number one tool of a biologist

Microscopes: number one tool of a biologist

  • Micro=Scope=

    • Small-to view

A microscope is an instrument used to view very small objects.

In biology we will use it to view….

living cells and unicellular organisms.


Compound light microscope

Compound Light Microscope


Tools of a biologist

There are 3 types of microscopes used in biology:

1. Compound light microscope

-Compound-

look through 2 lenses at the same time in order to properly magnify the organism.


Tools of a biologist

Total magnification:

low power:

ocular lens x10

low objective x4

--------------

x40

medium power:

ocular lens x10

low objective x10

--------------

x100

high power:

ocular lens x10

low objective x40

--------------

x400


Tools of a biologist

Compound light microscope:

-light

-light must pass through the

diaphragm and through the

object.

-object must be “thin” or

transparent so the light can

pass through it.

-Diaphragm:

regulates the amount of light that can pass through.

-Best setting of the diaphragm is #2


Staining

Staining

The purpose is to:

add color to a cell so that the cell and its structures can be seen more clearly through a microscope.


Limit of resolution

Limit of Resolution

-is the point at which you see an item most clearly.

Any magnification above or below that point will results in the object looking blurry.


Type 2 stereoscope

Type 2: Stereoscope

-Used to view the surface of objects which are too large for light to pass through them.

-Uses 2 lights to illuminate the surface of the object.

-Stereo means

“3 dimensional”

-Provides a 3-D detailed look at the surface of an object.


Tools of a biologist

  • -look through

    • 2 ocular lenses

  • -magnifies between x10 to x60


  • Type 3 electron microscopes

    Type 3: Electron Microscopes

    Uses electrons to form an image and NOT light

    Has a very high limit of resolution.

    -can see items very clearly at any magnification

    -can magnify up to 500,000x and still be clear

    • Object is placed in a vacuum

      • No air

      • No oxygen

      • Organism is DEAD


    Tools of a biologist

    Two types of electron microscopes:

    1. T.E.M. ~ Transmission Electron Microscope

    • Produces a 2-D, black and white image of inside of a cell.


    Tools of a biologist

    Produces a 3-D, black and white image of the surface of an object.

    2. S.E.M. ~ Scanning Electron Microscope


    Additional tools of a biologist

    Additional tools of a biologist:

    Tool used to separate the components of a mixture by their different densities.

    • Chromatography:


    Link to graphing

    Link to graphing


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