Immunology --- prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Zhaolin Hua Institute of Biophysics, CAS. Innate immunity --- the new frontier of immunology Viral infection and antibody --- a lesson from HIV elite controller Mucosal immunity --- why we are what we eat Future challenges
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Immunology --- prevention and treatment of infectious diseases
Institute of Biophysics, CAS
--- what immunology can do for us
Jansson, Eugène Fredrik
There must be a mechanism for the immune system to distinguish good and bad. (1989)
Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs)
Bacterial cell wall
Mutation of a single gene called “Toll” make the flies susceptible to fungal infection.
A mouse strain that is susceptible to Gram-negative bacterial infection was found to bear a mutation in Toll-like receptor 4.
Dendritic cells present antigens to T lymphocytes
B cells, which generate adaptive immunity, also express innate immune receptors. Simultaneous activation of both antigen-recognition and PAMP-recognition receptors induces strong antibody response.
Evolution of innate and adaptive immunity
One out of 300 people infected with HIV are naturally able to control the virus without having to take antiviral medications.
Membrane Ig: B cell signaling
Soluble Ig: antibody
Ig gene contains many gene segments which can form many different combinations.
Timothy Ryan “Berlin Patient”
In 2007, an HIV-infected man in Berlin received a transplant of haematopoietic stem cells from a naturally HIV-resistant donor. He has now been free of readily detectable virus in the absence of therapy for more than five years.
What we eat determines the bacterial flora (microbiota) in our gut.
Three major “enterotypes” were found in human, they are Bacteroides, Prevotella and Ruminococcus.
Commensal bacteria can provide protection through the creation of a hostile environment for pathogenic bacteria by the production of inhibitory compounds, by competing for adhesion sites, or by modulating the immune response.
Commensal bacteria are required to generate proper mucosal immunity.
No clinical proof yet!
Despite remarkable advances in medical research and treatments during the 20th century, infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of death worldwide.
SARS, Bird’s Flu, Super-bacteria
Polios, Measles, tuberculosis
AIDS, Hepatitis B, latent infection of Herpes viruses
Interdisciplinary approach to tackle the problem
Stem cell technique