Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases
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Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases. Dr. Wasantha Gunathunga Department of Community Medicine. H- nutr, imm. Levels of prevention. Primary Secondary Tertiary. Host. Age Sex Poor nutrition Habits HIV Immunity - BCG. Age Sex Poor nutrition Habits HIV Immunity - BCG.

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Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases

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Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases

Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases

Dr. Wasantha Gunathunga

Department of Community Medicine


Levels of prevention

H- nutr, imm

Levels of prevention

  • Primary

  • Secondary

  • Tertiary


Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases

Host

  • Age

  • Sex

  • Poor nutrition

  • Habits

  • HIV

  • Immunity - BCG


Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases

Age

Sex

Poor nutrition

Habits

HIV

Immunity - BCG

Age :

Old age (eg. TB)

Infancy(eg.diarrhoea)

Reproductive age (HIV)

Sex:

Male

female

Host


Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases

Age

Sex

Poor nutrition

Habits

HIV

Immunity - BCG

Poor nutrition

Proper infant and child feeding

Nutrition during illness

Nutrition in special groups

Proper feeding of senior citizens

Host


Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases

Age

Sex

Poor nutrition

Habits

HIV

Immunity - BCG

Habits

Prevention of substance abuse

Prevention of risk sexual behaviour

Hygiene

Other

Host


Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases

Age

Sex

Poor nutrition

Habits

HIV

Immunity - BCG

Prevention of HIV will prevent many other infections

Immunity –by vaccinations

Host


Agent

Agent

  • Prevent drug resistance -Tubercle bacillus

  • Not giving opportunity

  • Look for new forms – mutations, eg. SARS


Environment

Environment

  • Manage overcrowding

  • Recognize occupational exposure

  • Improve domestic ventilation

  • public transport

  • Prevent antibiotic residues in food

  • Treat open cases


Secondary prevention

secondary prevention

  • Surveillance

  • Screening

  • Complete treatment

  • Defaulter tracing


Surveillance

Surveillance

  • Epidemiological surveillance is the continuous scrutiny of factors that determine the occurrence and distribution of diseases or other conditions of ill health. It includes systematic collection, analysis, interpretation and distribution of relevant data for action.


Approaches of prevention

Approaches of prevention

  • Population approach

  • High risk approach


Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases

Control

Elimination

Eradication


Disease control

Disease Control

  • The disease ‘agent is allowed to persist in the environment

  • The disease ceases to become a public health problem

  • A state of equilibrium

  • Disease control involves activities of primary prevention and secondary prevention


Elimination

Elimination

  • Interruption of disease transmission in the community

    e.g. Diphtheria


Eradication

Eradication

  • Total removal of the infective agent thereby terminating disease transmission and the possibility of disease transmission

    e.g. Small pox , ?polio


Controlling the reservoir of infection

Controlling the reservoir of infection

The aim is to reduce the quantity of the agent available for dissemination

  • Early Diagnosis

  • Notification

  • Epidemiological investigation

  • Isolation

  • Treatment

  • Quarantine


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