Uses of airs data for weather climate and atmospheric composition
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Uses of AIRS Data for Weather, Climate and Atmospheric Composition. Eric Fetzer Jet Propulsion Laboratory / California Institute of Technology Satellite Hyperspectral Sensor Workshop, University of Miami March 29 -31, 2011. In Memory of Dr. Mous Chahine AIRS Science Team Leader and Friend.

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Uses of AIRS Data for Weather, Climate and Atmospheric Composition

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Uses of airs data for weather climate and atmospheric composition

Uses of AIRS Data for Weather, Climate and Atmospheric Composition

Eric Fetzer

Jet Propulsion Laboratory / California Institute of Technology

Satellite Hyperspectral Sensor Workshop, University of Miami

March 29 -31, 2011


In memory of dr mous chahine airs science team leader and friend

In Memory of Dr. Mous ChahineAIRS Science Team Leader and Friend


Airs project overview

AIRS Project Overview

Salient Features

Spacecraft – Instruments:

EOS Aqua – AIRS/AMSU/HSB

Launch Date: May 4, 2002

Launch Vehicle: Boeing Delta II, Intermediate ELVMission Life: 6 years

Category:2

Risk Class:A

Instruments Operational: August 2002

Team Leader: Moustafa T. Chahine

  • Science

  • Improve Weather Prediction

    • AIRS data are assimilated into the operational forecast system at NWP centers worldwide

    • AIRS Improves Forecast and Tropical Cyclone Prediction

  • Improve Climate Prediction

    • Measure the Water Cycle, Temperature Trends, Dust and Cloud Properties

  • Measure Important Trace Gases: CO, O3, CO2, CH4, SO2


  • Airs key products and science areas

    AIRS Key Products and Science Areas

    Cloud and Water Vapor Processes

    CO

    Cloud Properties

    Atmospheric Temperature

    Greenhouse Gas Forcing

    Atmospheric Water Vapor

    Dust

    Ozone

    Methane

    CO2

    SO2

    Emissivity


    400 airs peer reviewed publications

    ~400 AIRS Peer-Reviewed Publications


    Question 1

    Question 1

    • How are current hyperspectral IR sounders such as the NASA JPL AIRS and CNES & EUMETSAT IASI used?

      • What are the deficiencies?

      • What improved information is needed by the user?


    Airs improves weather operations and research

    Polar 1

    Polar 2

    Irene

    10

    15

    SAL 1

    SAL 3

    SAL 2

    20

    SAL 4

    5

    1

    AEW 1

    AIRS Improves Weather Operations and Research

    AIRS Research Validates Models

    NCEP Operational Improvement

    6 hrs on 6 day forecast

    J. LeMarshall, JCSDA

    J. Fu, U of Hawaii

    Regional Forecast Improvement

    NOAA Hurricane Center

    Saharan Air Layer Hurricane Suppression

    Rainfall

    Pressure

    J. Dunion, NOAA

    B. Zavodsky, NASA SPoRT


    Airs finds biases in climate model moisture temperature

    AIRS Finds Biases in Climate Model Moisture & Temperature

    • AIRS finds major climate models are too dry below 800 mb in the tropics, and too moist between 300 mb and 600 mb especially in the extra-tropics. (Pierce, John, Gettleman); too cold above.

    • Radiance biases of opposite signs in different spectral regions suggests that the apparent good agreement of a climate model's broadband longwave flux and total water with observations may be due to a fortuitous cancellation of spectral errors (Huang).

      • Pierce D. W., T. P. Barnett, E. J. Fetzer, P. J. Gleckler (2006), Three-dimensional tropospheric water vapor in coupled climate models compared with observations from the AIRS satellite system, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L21701, doi:10.1029/2006GL027060.

      • John, V.O. and Soden, B. J., Temperature and humidity biases in global climate models and their impact on climate feedbacks, Geophys.Res. Lett., 34, L18704, doi:10.1029/2007GL030429

      • Gettleman, Collins, Fetzer, Eldering, Irion (2006), “Climatology of Upper-Tropospheric Relative Humidity from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and Implications for Climate”, J. Climate, 19, 6104-6121. DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3956.1

      • Huang, Y., Ramaswamy, V., Huang, X.L., Fu, Q., Bardeen, C., A strict test in climate modeling with spectrally resolved radiances: GCM simulation versus AIRS observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2007, 34, 24, L24707

    Water Vapor Vertical Climatology(Pierce, Scripps)

    Outgoing Longwave Radiation

    (Huang, Univ. of Michigan)


    Airs h 2 o data used as truth to improve parameterizations in climate models

    AIRS H2O Data used as “Truth” toImprove Parameterizations in Climate Models

    • Tim Barnett: Scripps, UCSD

      • Coupled Climate Models show >50% bias errors in H2O vapor. Models worst at mid altitude and mid latitude.

    • Andrew Gettleman: NCAR

      • AIRS can provide insight on climate forcings

      • Variability not well reproduced in GCM/CAMS

      • Greenhouse effect appears to increase with SST

      • Water vapor feedback positive: but not as positive as constant RH would assume

    • Andrew Dessler: Texas A&M

      • Simple trajectory model with fixed RH limit does a good job of reproducing AIRS annual average water vapor

      • Model shows that dehydration of mid-troposphere air occurs in three latitude bands


    Uses of airs data for weather climate and atmospheric composition

    Atmospheric Composition:

    Influence of Madden-Julian Oscillation on AIRS CO2

    Contour line: TRMM Rain

    AIRS CO2 data are modulated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation.

    The peak-to-peak amplitude of the MJO signal is ~ 1 ppm.

    Li et al. [PNAS, 2010]


    Current airs status what are the deficiencies what improved information is needed by the user

    Current AIRS Status-- What are the deficiencies?-- What improved information is needed by the user?

    • Full utilization of existing data. Specifically:

      • Cloudy scenes (and cloud information) into forecasts.

      • Constituents

        • Sulfur dioxide (volcanoes).

        • Dust (aerosols).

        • HDO (hydrologic cycle)

        • Ammonia (nitrogen cycle; aerosols).

        • Etc…

    • Improved spatial resolution

    • Improved spectral coverage


    Information from airs retrievals in cloudy regions improves tropical cyclone forecast

    Information from AIRS Retrievals in Cloudy RegionsImproves Tropical Cyclone Forecast

    Major Impact to Tropical Cyclone Nargis Hindcast

    5 of the 7 forecasts’

    error at landfall is

    less than 50km

    AIRS Vis Image: Nargis, May 1, 2008

    Reale, O., W. K. Lau, J. Susskind, E. Brin, E. Liu, L. P. Riishojgaard, M. Fuentes, and R. Rosenberg (2009), AIRS impact on the analysis and forecast track of tropical cyclone Nargis in a global data assimilation and forecasting system, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L06812, doi:10.1029/2008GL037122.http://www.agu.org/journals/gl/gl0906/2008GL037122/

    Good landfall location

    Good landfall timing

    No Cyclone


    Current airs status what are the deficiencies what improved information is needed by the user1

    Current AIRS Status-- What are the deficiencies?-- What improved information is needed by the user?

    • Full utilization of existing data. Specifically:

      • Constituents

        • Sulfur dioxide (volcanoes).

        • Dust (aerosols).

        • HDO (hydrologic cycle)

        • Ammonia (nitrogen cycle; aerosols).

        • Etc…

    Gangale, G., A. J. Prata, and L. Clarisse (2009), The infrared spectral signature of volcanic ash determined from high-spectral resolution satellite measurements, Remote Sensing of Environment, 114(2), 414-425.


    Current airs status what are the deficiencies what improved information is needed by the user2

    Current AIRS Status-- What are the deficiencies?-- What improved information is needed by the user?

    • Improved horizontal resolution.


    Horizontal resolution needs driven by rapid improvements in global models

    Horizontal resolution needs driven by rapid improvements in global models.


    Higher spatial resolution will improve process studies of clouds and water vapor

    Higher Spatial Resolution will Improve Process Studies of Clouds and Water Vapor

    Water Vapor

    Sub Gridscale Resolution Needed to Constrain Cloud Physics Parameterizations

    Current (AIRS)

    50 km

    15 km

    Bretherton et al (2004)

    16


    Expect improvement in boundary layer accuracy and yield over land with higher spatial resolution

    Expect Improvement in Boundary Layer Accuracy and Yield over Land with Higher Spatial Resolution

    AIRS Yield and Accuracy Degrade Near Land Surface

    AIRS

    (Hyperspectral)

    One Month August 2005 Cloud-cleared

    50x50 km

    ν = 1095 cm-1

    T. Pagano (JPL)

    MODIS (Broadband)

    One Month August August 2003 Cloud-Free Scenes

    5x5 km

    ν = 1205 cm-1

    Land cases limited by inadequate surface emissivity knowledge.

    S. Hook (JPL)

    Joel Susskind, 2008


    Uses of airs data for weather climate and atmospheric composition

    Fine Scale Structure Cumulus Boundary Layers Needed for Improved Models

    Small values of cloud cover ~ 5-30%

    Stevens et al (2006)

    Low cloud cover, deeper boundary layers and smoother vertical structures   More detailed information from IR/MW sounding


    Ir sounding and cumulus boundary layer vertical structure airs and rico experiment

    IR sounding and cumulus boundary layer vertical structure: AIRS and RICO experiment

    AIRS Support Product provides realistic info on vertical structure


    Current airs status what are the deficiencies what improved information is needed by the user3

    Current AIRS Status-- What are the deficiencies?-- What improved information is needed by the user?

    • Improved spectral coverage

      • Carbon monoxide

      • Methane 3.33 micron band.


    Conclusions

    Conclusions

    • Much work has been done with AIRS

      • Reflected in ~400 publications in

        • Weather.

        • Climate.

        • Atmospheric Composition.

    • More to do

      • Exploit cloudy scenes in forecasts.

      • Extract more information about structure and composition.

    • The Future

      • Current and planned sounders will not keep up with rapid improvements in model resolution.


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