Emergency descent procedures
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B.5.4. WP 88 . Emergency Descent Procedures. Presented by: Bill Holtzman Member of TOC. You: Clear the Area!. PANS-ATM: Broadcast. 15.1.4.1 GENERAL

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Emergency Descent Procedures

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Emergency descent procedures

B.5.4

WP 88

Emergency Descent Procedures

Presented by:

Bill Holtzman

Member of TOC


You clear the area

You: Clear the Area!

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Pans atm broadcast

PANS-ATM: Broadcast

15.1.4.1 GENERAL

Upon receipt of advice that an aircraft is making an emergency descent through other traffic, all possible action shall be taken immediately to safeguard all aircraft concerned. When deemed necessary, air traffic control units shall immediately broadcastby means of the appropriate radio aids, or if not possible, request the appropriate communications stations immediately to broadcast an emergency message.

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Pans atm phraseology

PANS-ATM: Phraseology

12.3.2.5

ATTENTION ALL AIRCRAFT IN THE VICINITY OF [or AT] (significant point or location) EMERGENCY DESCENT IN PROGRESS FROM (level) (followed as necessary by specific instructions, clearances, traffic information, etc.).

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Pans atm response

PANS-ATM: Response

15.1.4.2 ACTION BY THE PILOT-IN-COMMAND

It is expected that aircraft receiving such a broadcast will clear the specified areas and stand by on the appropriate radio frequency for further clearances from the air traffic control unit.

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Eurocontrol

Eurocontrol

“…unless the emergency broadcast is appropriately targeted and contains unambiguous instructions, there is the possibility of aircraft unexpectedly deviating from their track to ‘clear the specified area’ which, in areas of high traffic density, has the potential to create additional hazardous situations.”

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Ifalpa

IFALPA

IFALPA believes that the provisions do not appear to reflect fully the realities of the present day operational environment. There is no direction as to how aircraft are to achieve the aim to "clear the specified areas", i.e. which kind of turn, or other action, is expected from them.

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Emergency considerations

Emergency Considerations

level of surveillance

equipage (ACAS)

aircraft performance characteristics

traffic density

meteorological

communications

nature of the emergency

condition of the pilots

many others…

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Doc 7030 nat supplement

Doc 7030, NAT Supplement

9.1.1.1.2 An aircraft compelled to make a descent through MNPS airspace, whether continuing to destination or turning back, should, if its descent will conflict with an organized track:

plan to descend to a level below FL 280;

prior to passing FL 410, proceed to a point midway between a convenient pair of organized tracks prior to entering that track system from above;

while descending between FL 410 and FL 280, maintain a track that is midway between and parallel with the organized tracks; and

contact ATC as soon as practicable and request a revised ATC clearance.

MNPS is Minimum Navigation Performance Specification, older version of RNP.

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Doc 7030 euro supplement

Doc 7030, Euro Supplement

9.1.1.1 When an aircraft operated as a controlled flight experiences sudden decompression or a malfunction requiring an emergency descent, the aircraft shall, if able:

initiate a turn away from the assigned route or track before commencing the emergency descent;

advise the appropriate air traffic control unit as soon as possible of the emergency descent;

set transponder to Code 7700 and select the Emergency Mode on the automatic dependent surveillance/controller-pilot data link communications (ADS/CPDLC) system, if applicable;

- continues with (d) through (f)

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


No turns

No turns

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Right offset

Right offset

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Left offset

Left offset

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Micro offset environment

Micro offset environment

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


State letter 15 apr 2014 1

State Letter 15 Apr 2014 - 1

15.1.4.1 ACTION BY THE ATS UNIT

Immediately upon recognition that an aircraft is making an emergency descent, all possible action shall be taken immediately to safeguard all aircraft concerned.

Appropriate actions may include:

broadcasting an emergency message;

issuing traffic information and/or instructions to aircraft affected by the descent;

advising the minimum flight altitude for the area of operation; and

inform any other ATS units which may be affected by the emergency descent.

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


State letter 15 apr 2014 2

State Letter 15 Apr 2014 - 2

15.1.4.2 ACTION BY THE PILOT OF THE AIRCRAFT IN AN EMERGENCY DESCENT

The pilot shall take the following steps as soon as practicable in the order appropriate for the circumstance:

navigate as deemed appropriate by the pilot;

advise the appropriate ATS unit of the emergency descent and if able intentions;

set transponder to Code 7700 and, if applicable, select the appropriate emergency mode on ADS-B

and/or ADS-C;

turn on aircraft exterior lights (commensurate with appropriate operating limitations);

watch for conflicting traffic both visually and by reference to ACAS (if equipped);

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


State letter 15 apr 2014 3

State Letter 15 Apr 2014 - 3

f) coordinate further intentions with the appropriate ATS unit;

g) as applicable, set ACAS to “TA only” mode; and

h) when emergency descent is complete, and as soon as practicable, set ACAS to “TA/RA” mode.

Note 1.— Procedures for the use of ACAS are contained in PANS-OPS, Volume I, Part III, Section 3, Chapter 3.

Note 2.— Selecting “TA only” does not stop the generation of resolution advisories by the ACAS in other aircraft; rather, it signifies to the ACAS of other aircraft that a co-ordinated resolution advisory is not possible.

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Use of acas ta mode

Use of ACAS TA Mode

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


State letter 15 apr 2014 4

State Letter 15 Apr 2014 - 4

15.1.4.3 ACTION BY THE PILOT OF AIRCRAFT RECEIVING EMERGENCY DESCENT BROADCAST

Unless specifically instructed by the ATS unit to clear the area or threatened by immediate danger, the pilot shall take the following actions:

continue according to current clearance and maintain listening watch on the frequency in use for any further instructions from the ATS unit; and

watch for conflicting traffic both visually and by reference to ACAS (if equipped).

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


State letter 15 apr 2014 5

State Letter 15 Apr 2014 - 5

Comments by 31 July 2014

Publication 10 November 2016

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Conclusions 1

Conclusions 1

Emergency descent situations are analogous to Resolution Advisories in that they may introduce a second decision-maker within the ATC environment - the pilot of the aircraft executing an emergency descent. Depending on circumstances, the pilot may or may not be able to coordinate the trajectory of the aircraft with the controller.

ICAO provides guidance regarding emergency descent for pilots in Doc 8168 and for both pilots and controllers in Doc 7030 and PANS-ATM sections 15.1.4 and 12.3.2.5.

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Conclusions 2

Conclusions 2

Theguidance in the PANS-ATM is outdated in today’s congested environments, and can actually cause more conflicts than it seeks to prevent. The PANS-ATM uses the term “clear the specified area” (15.1.4.2), which directly implies pilots should navigate off their assigned routes at their own discretion, in conflict with core principles of air traffic control.

The guidance in the PANS-ATM does not establish clarity in “the decider” role in the event of an emergency descent and in fact encourages a situation in which all of the affected pilots may be navigating independently. This is likely the worst possible scenario for a controller.

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Conclusions 3

Conclusions 3

In an emergency descent, both the pilot and the controller must consider multiple factors and instantly determine the best course of action. The pilot may be able to transmit intentions, but if not the controller must attempt to extrapolate the aircraft trajectory. In that case, the pilot must consider the potential for a traffic conflict with aircraft below and take appropriate action, because no other system participant has full knowledge of the future trajectory of the emergency aircraft.

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Conclusions 4

Conclusions 4

Optimal usage of radio frequency transmission time is critical in any emergency situation.

An aircraft executing an emergency descent cannot be expected to respond to a resolution advisory.

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Questions

Questions?

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Recommendations

Recommendations

IFATCA policy is:

IFATCA supports the modernization of emergency descent procedures.

and is included in the IFATCA Technical and Professional Manual.

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Sl an 13 2 5 13 32

SL AN 13/2.5-13/32

3.4 Where the lateral separation minima or route spacing is 11.1 km (6 NM) or more, but less than 30 NM, it is now also proposed to allow offsets to the right of the centre line in increments of tenths of a mile up to a maximum of 0.5 NM (0.9 km).

Effective November 2014

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


Iccaia

ICCAIA

Emergency Descent Procedures, B.5.4 WP 88


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