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Organization of the Nervous System. Overview of the Central (CNS), Peripheral (PNS), Autonomic (ANS), Enteric (ENS) Nervous Systems. Brain. Structure Ventricles Meninges Organization Function. Meningial Cell.

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Organization of the Nervous System

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Organization of the nervous system

Organization of the Nervous System

Overview of the

Central (CNS),

Peripheral (PNS),

Autonomic (ANS),

Enteric (ENS)

Nervous Systems


Brain

Brain

  • Structure

    • Ventricles

    • Meninges

  • Organization

  • Function


Meningial cell

Meningial Cell

  • Cells that form the meningeal cell layers of the meninges covering the brain and spinal cord


Meninges

Meninges

  • is a three layered covering of brain in which blood vessels travel and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is absorbed.

  • Meninges means “covering”in Greek

  • Dura Mater: hard mother in Latin

  • Arachnoid Membrane: spider web like

  • Pia Mater : gentle mother in Latin


Dura mater

Dura Mater:

  • tough inelastic leather-like membrane covering brain/spinal cord

  • Blood vessels cross through it

  • Protects brain and spinal cord


Arachnoid membrane

Arachnoid Membrane:

  • Spider-web like membrane

  • Sub-arachnoid space is filled with CSF and the arachnoid villi of blood vessels of the arachnoid re-absorb the CSF


Pia mater

Pia Mater

  • closely adheres to brain and spinal cord tissue

  • Blood vessels penetrate pia to supply brain

  • Separated from arachnoid membrane by the subarachnoid space


Blood brain barrier

blood-brain barrier

  • blood vessels have special anatomy that provides blood-brain barrier that prevents toxins, viruses and improper chemical environment from affecting brain cells.


Ventricles

Ventricles

  • The brain is hollow, ie there are CSF-filled caverns and canals inside the brain

  • Two lateral ventricles, left and right

  • 3rd ventricle

  • 4th ventricle


Ependymal cell

Ependymal Cell

  • Epithelial cells that line the ventricular system

  • Can also secrete CSF in some locations of the ventricles

  • CSF cushions & protects brain and provides chemical environment for proper brain function


Organization of the nervous system

CSF

  • Choroid plexus (epithelial cells) resides in 3rd & 4th ventricle and makes CSF

  • Hydrocephalus (water on the brain) results from accumulation of CSF


Microglia

Microglia

  • Smallest glial cell

  • No known role in healthy nervous system\

  • Involved in repair of nervous system after injury or infection

  • Multiply quickly, migrate to injured area and phagocytize dead cells.

  • Behave like macrophages


Exam 1

Exam 1

  • Cells: Chapter 1-Nolte-Human Brain

  • History: Chapter 1- Bear

  • Organization of NS: Ch 7 Bear

    • Or

  • any book on reserve has a chapter devoted to general organization


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