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CHAPTER 6. IONIC AND COVALENT BONDS. What happens to electrons? What is the electronegativity difference? What type of elements are involved?. IONIC COMPOUNDS. What is the simplest unit of the compound called? How is strength of the bond measured?. IONIC COMPOUNDS.

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Chapter 6

CHAPTER 6

IONIC AND COVALENT BONDS


Ionic compounds

IONIC COMPOUNDS


Ionic compounds1

IONIC COMPOUNDS


Covalent compounds

COVALENT COMPOUNDS


Covalent compounds1

COVALENT COMPOUNDS


IONIC PROPERTIES

COVALENT PROPERTIES

  • Very strong bond and Intermolecular forces due to electrostatic attraction

  • High melting point and boiling point

  • When (l) or dissolved in water (aq) ionic compounds will conduct electricity

  • Hard and brittle

  • Form a crystal lattice with unique crystal shapes

  • Weaker bonds/ e are shared

  • Low melting and boiling point

  • Soft (usually l or g)

  • Non-conductors

  • Low intermolecular forces

    • H-bonding, dipole-dipole in polar covalent

    • London dipersion forces in non-polar covalent.



  • Why do ions form?

  • Atoms become stable by gaining or losing VALENCE electrons to achieve a full outer ENERGY level.

    • Losing electrons produces a POSITIVE charge and the ion is called a CATION.

    • Gaining electrons produces a NEGATIVE charge and the ion is called an ANION.

  • Normally, atoms will try to achieve a full octet and noble gas electron configuration to become stable.


  • Ex. Li loses 1 electron and forms Li+ which has the same electron configuration as Helium.

    [He]1s1 [He]

  • Ex. S gains 2 electrons and forms S–2 which has the same configuration as Argon.

    [Ne] 3s23p4  [Ne]3s23p6 [Ar]


  • Exceptions to the octet rule:

  • Hydrogen and He only need 2 (not 8) to be stable, since they only include an S orbital.

  • TRANSITION METALS do not have to achieve noble gas configuration to become more stable.

  • Ex. Fe can have charges of +2, +3, or +6



  • Ions have different properties than the parent atom.

    • Recall, the size of the ion changes.

    • Cations are smaller than the parent atom.

      Anions are larger than the parent atom.

    • Ions are more stable than the parent atom.

  • Ex. Once sodium loses an electron, it is no longer reactive when it becomes +1.

  • We can eat Na+ in NaCl, but we could never eat Na (s) – it explodes in water!!!




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