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Managing peace security regional international conflict

Managing Peace & Security:

Regional & International Conflict


Managing peace security regional international conflict

Nobel Peace Prize- Awarded by the Norwegian Nobel Committee- Barack Obama was awarded for :1. his efforts to strengthen international diplomacy 2. his vision of a world without nuclear weapons3. his work towards restarting the stalled Middle East peace process Obama has given people hope for a better future

The Nobel Peace Prize

for 2009


Obama s work towards restarting the stalled middle east peace process

Obama’s work towards restarting the stalled Middle East peace process

Feb 2009:

Obama directed military to plan Iraq drawdown

Mar 2009:

Obama announced that the US combat mission in Iraq would end by September 2010


Have you ever wondered why are the us troops in iraq

Have you ever wondered why are the US troops in Iraq?

Mar 2003:

George Bush announced war against Iraq based on the following reasons:

  • Iraq's alleged possession of

    weapons of mass destruction

    which posed a threat to US’s

    security and that of their regional

    allies

    2. Iraq's involvement in transnational

    terrorism

Known as the Iraq War


Managing peace security regional international conflict

2 Aug 1990: Iraq invaded Kuwait

17 Jan 1991: US with the involvement of other countries

invaded Iraq together (Gulf war)

28 Feb 1991: War ended with Iraq

accepting terms of resolution

Mar 2003: George Bush announced war against Iraq

Feb 2009: Obama directed military to plan Iraq drawdown

Mar 2009: Obama announced that the US combat

mission in Iraq would end by September 2010


Managing peace security regional international conflict

Looking at the conflict between 1990-1991, what are some questions you have regarding it or the countries involved?


Managing peace and security

Managing Peace and Security:

  • International Conflict

  • Transnational Terrorism

    Impact

Regional Conflict

  • Iraq & Kuwait

    Causes & Impact


Learning outcomes

Learning Outcomes

At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

A. Explain the causes of conflict between Iraq & Kuwait:

1. Historical Enmity 2. Economic Problems

3. Oil Production 4. Territorial Disputes

B. Attempts to Resolve the Problems Between Iraq

& Kuwait

C. Immediate Causes of Gulf War


Do you still remember what you have learnt in sec 3 ss about conflicts

Do you still remember what you have learnt in Sec 3 SS about conflicts?

Why do countries go to war?


M i d d l e e a s t

MIDDLE EAST


The middle east

The Middle East

  • Largest group of people living in the Middle East are the Arabs

  • Islam is the main religion

  • One of the most important oil-producing regions in the world

  • Controls a strategic waterway known as the Suez Canal which links Europe to the Middle East and Asia (important trade route)


Managing peace security regional international conflict

Saudi Arabia


Managing peace security regional international conflict

Kuwait


Managing peace security regional international conflict

Iraq


Managing peace security regional international conflict

Yemen


Managing peace security regional international conflict

Causes of the Gulf War1. Historical Enmity2. Economic Problems 3. Oil Production4. Territorial Disputes


1 historical enmity

1. Historical Enmity

Under the Ottoman Empire in the past

Became British colonies and were granted

independence from the British in 1961

Do you remember what happened the war between South Korea & North Korea?

What do you think happened between Iraq & Kuwait after they had gained independence?


Managing peace security regional international conflict

1. Historical Enmity (continued)

Iraq refused to recognise Kuwait’s independence as it claimed that Kuwait was historically a part of Iraq and governed under the same territory when they were both under Ottoman rule

Iraq had on several occasions claimed sovereignty over Kuwait and even sent troops to claim Kuwait in 1961

However Iraq was stopped by British and other Arab nations’ troops


Managing peace security regional international conflict

1. Historical Enmity (continued)

How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

Iraq never accepted the fact of Kuwait’s independence and

Kuwait’s refusal to give in was seen as defiance and a personal

attack on Saddam Hussein. Kuwait’s refusal was also a threat to

Iraq’s national interest. Therefore Iraq decided to attack Kuwait.

Anything that affects the existence, independence, sovereignty, economic development and territorial control of a country

In 1963, Iraq gave up its claim on Kuwait after facing pressure from its Arab neighbours and receiving a large sum of money from Kuwait

However there were several instances where Iraq used its military power to threaten Kuwait over border disputes


Who is saddam hussein

Who is Saddam Hussein?

Looking at the cartoon, what kind of person do you think he was?

Why do you say so?


Who is saddam hussein1

Who is Saddam Hussein?

  • President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003

  • Always seen himself as a great leader of the Arab world

  • Ruthless: Did not allow anyone to oppose him

  • Captured by US forces in 2003

  • Convicted of the 1982 killing of 148 Iraqs in 2006

  • Sentenced to death and executed in 2006


2 economic problems

2. Economic Problems

Before the war, Iraq was a

prosperous country with about

US$35 billion in reserves

Impact of Iran-Iraq War

(1980 to 1988) on Iraq

  • Heavy loss of lives

  • Owed about US$80 billion in debts to its neighbours and

  • other countries, such as the US and France (supplied food

  • and war equipment

  • **Kuwait provided Iraq a loan of US$14 billion

  • Reconstruction of Iraq required US$230 billion

  • Prices of basic necessities became very high and people

  • became unhappy with Saddam Hussein


Managing peace security regional international conflict

2. Economic Problems (continued)

  • How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

  • War with Iran had drained Iraq’s economy

  • Therefore Iraq needed to attack Kuwait and gain control

  • over its resources in order to ease the economic

  • hardships in Iraq to appease the people


Managing peace security regional international conflict

3. Oil Production

How do you think Iraq can pay off this massive debt

and rebuild the country in another way besides

Gaining control over Kuwait’s resources ?

By earning more revenue from the sale of oil

  • However, oil prices were falling due to over-production by some countries

  • OPEC had put quotas on the amount of oil that countries can produced to prevent decline in oil prices

  • However Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates ignored the quota set

OPEC =

Organization of the

Petroleum

Exporting Countries


3 oil production continued

3. Oil Production (continued)

  • What do you think happened when countries ignored

  • the quota set and produced oil well above their

  • assigned limits?

  • Oil prices fell

  • Iraq lost revenue (lost US$1 billion from oil sales each

  • time oil price fell by US$1)


3 oil production continued1

3. Oil Production (continued)

  • How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

  • Iraq was unhappy as the action of Kuwait & UAE was

  • equivalent to waging an economic war on Iraq

  • (90% of its income came from sale of oil)

  • This affected its national interest as this hindered its

  • efforts to repay its debts and rebuild its country

  • Therefore it led to Iraq’s decision to attack Kuwait


Managing peace security regional international conflict

4. Territorial Disputes

Do you remember what happened between China & India when India gained its independence from Britain?

What do you think happened when Iraq & Kuwait gained independence?


4 territorial disputes continued

4. Territorial Disputes (continued)

Rumaila oilfield

  • As Iraq and Kuwait had inherited their borders from the British, some were not very well-defined

  • The unclearly-defined borders between Iraq and Kuwiat had resulted in both sides sharing the profitable Rumaila oilfield


4 territorial disputes continued1

4. Territorial Disputes (continued)

In 1990, Iraq accused Kuwait for stealing oil by drilling for oil from the Iraqi side using slant-drilling technology

Iraq demanded Kuwait to stop drilling for oil completely and demanded US$2.4 billion in compensation

Kuwait refused as it claimed that it had only drilled oil from their side of the oilfield


4 territorial disputes continued2

4. Territorial Disputes (continued)

  • How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

  • Iraq was unhappy as Kuwait’s refusal to Iraq’s demands

  • was seen as defiance and a personal attack on Saddam

  • Hussein who saw himself as a great leader of the Arab world

  • Their refusal also affected Iraq’s national interest as Kuwait

  • was depleting oil from the Rumaila oilfield on Iraqi’s side

  • which would affect their oil production

  • Therefore Iraq decided to invade Kuwait


4 territorial disputes continued3

4. Territorial Disputes (continued)

Bubiyan and Warbah Islands (inherited from the British)

Iraq wanted the islands because:

  • Kuwait has the potential to block off Iraq’s access to the Persian Gulf which would affect Iraq’s oil transportation

  • They would help it gain access to the open waters of the Persian Gulf which create better transport possibilities for Iraq

  • They would enable Iraq to transport oil in greater quantities (Current port, Umm Qasr has shallow waters where big ships cannot dock and has poor port facilities)


Managing peace security regional international conflict

Persian

Gulf


4 territorial disputes continued4

4. Territorial Disputes (continued)

Bubiyan and Warbah Islands (inherited from the British)

Iraq did not accept Kuwait’s ownership of these two islands and had attempted to claim ownership of the islands through force in the 1960s and 1970s but failed.

From 1978, Iraq wanted to lease the islands from Kuwait, but Kuwait refused because it feared this would open the door for further territorial demands from Iraq.


4 territorial disputes continued5

4. Territorial Disputes (continued)

  • How do you think this led to the Gulf War?

  • Iraq was unhappy as Kuwait’s refusal to give up the

  • islands was seen as defiance and a personal on Saddam

  • Hussein who saw himself as a great leader of the Arab world

  • Kuwait’s refusal also affected its national interest as without

  • access to the Persian Gulf, Iraq would find it difficult to export

  • oil which would result in the loss of revenue

  • Therefore Iraq decided to invade Kuwait


Managing peace security regional international conflict

Bubiyan and Warbah Islands


Attempts to resolve the problems between iraq and kuwait

Attempts to resolve the problems between Iraq and Kuwait?

Mediation by Arab League

Complaints made by Iraq against Kuwait over :

1.The alleged oil theft over Rumaila oilfield.

2.Iraq’s request that Kuwait and rest of Arab countries should cancel Iraq’ wartime debt to them.

3.Over- production of oil by Kuwait and UAE (that led to Iraq’a economic problems)

4. Territorial issues (Bubiyan and Warbah islands)


Were these attempts at mediation successful

Were these attempts at mediation successful?

POSITIVE

  • Had some successes initially

  • Iraq managed to get some concessions from Kuwait and other countries

  • OPEC countries agreed to increase the price of oil from US$ 18 to US$21– Iraq would earn more from the sale of oil

  • Kuwait promised to write off wartime debts and provide additional US$500 million as a loan to Iraq


Managing peace security regional international conflict

NEGATIVE

  • However, Kuwait refused to concede territory to Iraq nor pay for oil drilled from Rumaila oilfield

    IRAQ invaded KUWAIT

    2nd August 1990


What were the immediate causes of the iraq kuwait conflict

What were the immediate causes of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict?

The negotiations talks between Iraq and Kuwait had been progressing well.

Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait had come as a surprise move to many.

What then, were the immediate causes that led to the invasion by Iraq?


What were the immediate causes of the iraq kuwait conflict1

What were the immediate causes of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict?

Iraq’s Official Reason

  • To free Kuwait from the ruling government at the request of revolutionaries

Saddam Hussein’s leadership

  • Kuwait’s repeated refusal to give in on the territorial issues and Rumaila oil theft were seen as a personal insult to Saddam.


What were the immediate causes of the iraq kuwait conflict2

What were the immediate causes of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict?

Political problems

  • Hussein had deployed a large number of troops at the border of Kuwait.

  • The soldiers were getting restless.

  • Hussein feared that the soldiers would turn against him if he delayed taking action against Kuwait.


What were the immediate causes of the iraq kuwait conflict3

What were the immediate causes of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict?

Misreading the position of the US

  • Saddam Hussein believed that US was sympathetic to Iraq’s problems with Kuwait.

  • And therefore would not help Kuwait in the event of an Iraqi invasion.

In 1990, a US Ambassador in Iraq declared that "we have no opinion on the Arab-Arab conflicts." She also said that the U.S. did not intend "to start an economic war against Iraq".


Learning outcomes1

Learning Outcomes

At the end of the lesson, you should be able to explain:

  • Reactions to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait

  • Impact of Gulf War

  • Effectiveness of UN


Reactions to the iraqi invasion of kuwait

Reactions to the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait

Reactions from:

  • The Arab countries

  • America

  • United Nations (International response)


Understanding the gulf war its effects

Understanding the Gulf War & its Effects

Understanding

The Players

The 4 Stages


The players

The Players…

Iraq

Individual Countries

Kuwait

Arab League (including Saudi Arabia & Middle East)

Regional

International

US & Coalition Forces

UN


The 4 stages of the gulf war

The 4 Stages of the Gulf War

Stage 1 : Why Iraq invaded Kuwait (Recall)

Stage 2: When Iraq first invaded Kuwait

Stage 3: When Iraq was in full-blown invasion

Stage 4: Review of Gulf War – The Effects…


Managing peace security regional international conflict

The Gulf Warthe war fought between Iraq and a coalition led by the United States that freed Kuwait from Iraqi invaders 1990-1991


Timeline of gulf war

Timeline of Gulf War

2 August 1990 —Iraq invades Kuwait. Saddam Hussein proclaims Kuwait as a province of Iraq.

7 August 1990 —Operation Desert Shield begins. The first US forces arrive in Saudi Arabia.

29 November 1990 —UN authorizes any force necessary to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Iraqis are given to 15 January to leave Kuwait.

21 January 1991 —Congress grants President George H.W. Bush the authority to use military force.

15 January 1991 — Deadline passes for Iraqi withdrawal.

16 January 1991 — Air campaign begins against military leadership targets in Kuwait and Iraq (concentrating on Baghdad).


Timeline of gulf war1

Timeline of Gulf War

24 February 1991 — Desert Storm begins as coalition ground forces drive on Iraqi forces in Kuwait.

28 February 1991 — After 100 hours, Iraq agrees to a ceasefire. Iraqi forces have retreated from Kuwait. The United States (under the leadership of President George H.W. Bush, Defense Secretary Dick Cheney and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Colin Powell) is satisfied with U.N. objectives and does not push on to Baghdad. Within Iraq, Saddam brutally crushes Shi'ite and Kurdish opposition.

3 March 1991 — Iraq accepts conditions for a permanent cease fire.


Stage 1 why iraq invaded kuwait

Stage 1: Why Iraq invaded Kuwait

Can you recall why Iraq invaded Kuwait?


Stage 2 when iraq first invaded kuwait

Stage 2: When Iraq first invaded Kuwait

Regional – Fear of Iraqi Dominance

a. With Iraq occupying Kuwait, they control 20% of world’s oil production

b. Iraqi army now at Kuwait – Saudi Arabia border

What is the fear?

What is the fear?

  • Iraq might set a high price for

  • oil to solve its economic

  • problems

  • Create problems for world

  • economy

  • Iraq might invade Saudi

  • Arabia for its resources

  • Saudi Arabia was no match

  • for Iraq


Managing peace security regional international conflict

Regional – ‘Arab Solution’

Kuwait appealed to Arab League for help (did not want western help)

Why no Western help?

Did not want a return of

western imperialism

Arab League called upon Iraq to withdraw troops, but not all the Arab countries supported this.

Effectiveness of vote?

Not effective as some Arab

countries had alliances with Iraq


Managing peace security regional international conflict

International – America’s Response

a. Responded to Saudi Arabia’s invitation to help defend their kingdom

b. Operation Desert Shield launched with a coalition of more than 30 countries providing troops, equipment etc

Main Reason for Response

- Cannot allow a ruthless country dominate oil production

Effect if Iraq did have

control of

oil production???

  • Iraq would have great economic

  • & military power

  • 2. Iraq would have the arrogance to

  • intimidate and coerce its

  • neighbours who control the

  • world’s remaining oil reserves


Managing peace security regional international conflict

UN passed a resolution

International – UN’s Response

Demanding for immediate Iraqi withdrawal

Economic & Political sanctions: No country to sell Iraq goods, as 90% of Iraq’s goods are imported

Called for immediate & intensive negotiations between Iraq & Kuwait

Froze Kuwait’s and Iraq’s assets worldwide to stop use of funds by Iraq


Stage 3 when iraq was in full blown invasion

Stage 3: When Iraq was in full-blown invasion

Country – Iraq’s Response

a. Initially, Iraq seemed compliant when Arab leaders called for a resolution. Agreed to withdraw from Kuwait, provided a different Kuwaiti government is formed


Managing peace security regional international conflict

b. Once Arab League condemned his actions, Saddam Hussein became defiant

Saddam’s Actions…

- Iraqis took westerners in Iraq & Kuwait hostage

  • Announced the Annexation of Kuwait

Reaction of the International Community?


Managing peace security regional international conflict

We will still press on!!

International – UN & US

Coalition troops started pouring into Saudi Arabia

US arranged for meeting between Iraq & US Secretary of State

UN gave a deadline for Iraq to withdraw troops (15th Jan 1991)


Managing peace security regional international conflict

- Since Iraq did not comply with diplomatic efforts, need to FORCE Iraq out of Kuwait

International – UN & US

Operation Desert Storm

Coalition regained Kuwait City

Destroyed Iraq’s command & control capabilities

Iraq accepted defeat & ALL UN resolutions


Stage 4 review of war consequences of gulf war

Stage 4: Review of WarConsequences of Gulf War

1. Impact on Kuwait

2. Impact on Iraq

(a) Destruction of Iraqi military capability

(b) Political instability in Iraq

(c) Suffering of Iraqis

3. Regional & International Impact

(a) Environment catastrophe

(b) Displacement of foreign workers


Stage 4 review of war consequences of gulf war1

Stage 4: Review of WarConsequences of Gulf War

1. Impact on Kuwait

  • > 1,000 Kuwaiti civilians killed, thousands tortured by Iraqi soldiers

  • Kuwaitis were treated harshly & forced to flee their country

  • Businesses, hospitals were looted by Iraqi soldiers

  • Iraqi army set fire to Kuwaiti oil wells, losses of US$25 billion


Managing peace security regional international conflict

2. Impact on Iraq

c. Suffering of Iraqis

a. Destruction of Iraqi military capability

b. Political Instability in Iraq


Managing peace security regional international conflict

a. Destruction of Iraqi military capability

2. Impact on Iraq

  • Before invasion, Iraq had one of the most impressive military powers in Middle East

  • After the Gulf war, 1/3 of Iraq’s capabilities were destroyed by coalition forces


Managing peace security regional international conflict

What happened to Iraq during the war?

Iraqi air defence destroyed

Coalition had state of the art weapons

Loss of morale of the Iraqi soldiers (many surrendered instead of fight)

No way to protect Iraqi ground troops

1/3 Iraqi’s capabilities

destroyed

Fleeing soldiers & ground troops attacked


Managing peace security regional international conflict

b. Political Instability

Kurds in Iraq

Encouraged by the coalition forces to stand up against Sadam

Have wanted a homeland of their own for a long time

Thousands of Kurds

massacred

& 1 million fled the country

Thought the coalition forces would support them, but they did not


Managing peace security regional international conflict

c. Suffering of Iraqis

  • Large amount of Iraqi infrastructure destroyed by coalition forces

  • Electricity supply destroyed

  • Could not operate water purification & sewage facilities as there was no electricity

  • Spread of disease


Managing peace security regional international conflict

3. Regional & International Impact

(a) Environment catastrophe

  • When Iraq realized that they were losing the battle, they set fire to Kuwaiti oil wells and dumped oil into the Persian Gulf

  • Marine life became threatened

  • Cost millions of dollars to put out the fires and clear the oil slick from the Persian Gulf


Managing peace security regional international conflict

3. Regional & International Impact

(b) Displacement of foreign workers

  • At the time of Iraq’s invasion, early 2 million foreign workers (Bangladesh, India, Egypt … ) were working in Kuwait

  • Fled Kuwait when war broke out

  • Lost of income

  • Families suffered


Managing peace security regional international conflict

YES, why?

Was the UN Successful at maintaining PEACE & STABILITY?

  • A lot of countries helped, self-interest, didn’t want iraq to have all the share and cause price of oil to increase

  • US (militarily strong, strong leadership)


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