Designing a Differentiated Lesson Plan from Scratch. Hamilton County ESC January 25, 2012. For further conversation about any of these topics:. Rick Wormeli [email protected] 703-620-2447 Herndon, Virginia, USA (Eastern Standard Time Zone). [Artist Unknown. What is fair…
Hamilton County ESC
January 25, 2012
Herndon, Virginia, USA
(Eastern Standard Time Zone)
…isn’t always equal.
6. Do we keep up to date on the latest research about learning, students’ developmental growth, and our content specialty areas?
7. Do we ceaselessly self-analyze and reflect on our lessons — including our assessments — searching for ways to improve?
8. Are we open to critique?
9. Do we push students to become their own education advocates and give them the tools to do so?
10. Do we regularly close the gap between knowing what to do and really doing it?
Differentiating instruction is doing what’s fair for students. It’s a collection of best practices strategically employed to maximize students’ learning at every turn, including giving them the tools to handle anything that is undifferentiated. It requires us to do different things for different students some, or a lot, of the time. It’s whatever works to advance the student if the regular classroom approach doesn’t meet students’ needs. It’s highly effective teaching.
Students are working in small groups on an assigned task. One student isn’t cooperating with the rest of his group, however, and as a result, the group is falling farther behind the other groups.
Eleven students do not do the assignment from last night. Consequently, they are not prepared to move on with the class in today’s task.
A. Steps to take before designing the learning experiences:
1. Identify your essential understandings, questions, benchmarks, objectives, skills, standards, and/or learner outcomes.
2. Identify your students with unique needs, and get an early look at what they will need in order to learn and achieve.
3. Design your formative and summative assessments.
4. Design and deliver your pre-assessments based on the summative assessments and identified objectives.
5. Adjust assessments or objectives based on your further thinking discovered while designing the assessments.
Family dynamics (if influential) Transiency rate
Physical health Emotional health
Speech and Language Issues Behavior/Discipline concerns
Nationality (if influential) Diet (if influential)
Religious affiliation (if influential) Technology access/comfort
Multiple Intelligences Arts – comfort/profiency
Personal background/experiences Leadership qualities
Personal interests: sports, music, Weekly schedule
television, movies, books, Politics (if influential)
hobbies, other Anthony Gregorc Scale
Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory Home responsibilities
Bernice McCarthy’s 4MAT ADHD
Tourette’s Syndrome Asperger’s Syndrome
Down’s Syndrome Hearing Impaired
Visually Impaired Auditory Processing issues
B. Steps to take while designing the learning experiences:
1. Design the learning experiences for students based on pre-assessments, your knowledge of your students, and your expertise with the curriculum, cognitive theory, and students at this stage of human development.
2. Run a mental tape of each step in the lesson sequence to make sure things make sense for your diverse group of students and that the lesson will run smoothly.
3. Review your plans with a colleague.
4. Obtain/Create materials needed for the lesson.
5. Conduct the lesson.
6. Adjust formative and summative assessments and objectives as necessary based on observations and data collected while teaching.
Students have to do both,
C. Steps to take after providing the learning experiences:
1. Evaluate the lesson’s success with students. What evidence do you have that the lesson was successful? What worked and what didn’t, and why?
2. Record advice on lesson changes for yourself for when you do this lesson in future years.
“Tim was so learned, that he could name a horse in nine languages; so ignorant, that he bought a cow to ride on.”
Ben Franklin, 1750, Poor Richard’s Almanac
Students have mastered content when they
demonstrate a thorough understanding as
evidenced by doing something substantive
with the content beyond merely echoing it.
Anyone can repeat information; it’s the
masterful student who can break content into
its component pieces, explain it and alternative
perspectives regarding it cogently to others,
and use it purposefully in new situations.
Introductory Level Understanding:
Student walks through the classroom door while wearing a heavy coat. Snow is piled on his shoulders, and he exclaims, “Brrrr!” From depiction, we can infer that it is cold outside.
Sophisticated level of understanding:
Ask students to analyze more abstract inferences about government propaganda made by Remarque in his wonderful book, All Quiet on the Western Front.
From, Teaching the Large College Class, Frank Heppner, 2007, Wiley and Sons
Feedback: Holding up a mirror to the student, showing him what they did and comparing it to the criteria for success, there’s no evaluative component or judgement
Assessment: Gathering data so we can make a decision
Greatest Impact on Student Success:Formative feedback
The student’s grade: B
What does this mark tell us about the student’s proficiency with each of the topics you’ve taught?
Problem: Most tests use a single score to assess multiple dimensions and traits. The resulting score is often invalid and useless. -- Marzano, CAGTW, page 13
A science and math teacher, Mr. Blackstone, teaches a large concept (Inertia) to the whole class. Based on “exit cards” in which students summarize what they learned after the whole class instruction, and observation of students over time, he assigns students to one of two labs: one more open-ended and one more structured. Those that demonstrate mastery of content in a post-lab assessment, move to an independent project (rocketry), while those that do not demonstrate mastery, move to an alternative rocketry project, guided by the teacher, that re-visits the important content. (Tomlinson, p. 24)
-- Tomlinson, Eidson, 2003
Back and forth over time or course of unit
Dimension of Learning:
[Canaday and Rettig]
[Summarized from Canaday and Rettig]
[Summarized from Canaday and Rettig]
Myers - Briggs Personality Styles, Bernice McCarthy’s 4MAT System, Gregorc Scale and Teaching Model, Bramson’s Styles of Thinking, Left Brain vs. Right Brain, Multiple Intelligences
Specific to Today’s Lesson:
Common Definition -- Adjusting the following to maximize learning:
Rick’s Preferred Definition:
-- Changing the level of complexity or required
readiness of a task or unit of study in order to meet
the developmental needs of the students involved
(Similar to Tomlinson’s “Ratcheting”).
Tier in gradations
Example -- Graph the solution set of each of the following:
1. y > 2 2. 6x + 3y < 2 3. –y < 3x – 7
2. 6x + 3y < 2
3y < -6x + 2
y < -2x + 2/3
3 -5 1/3
Given these two ordered pairs, students would then graph the line and shade above or below it, as warranted.
For early readiness students:
For advanced readiness students:
Track eye movement across the line – Lines presented with lots of space in between each one:
1. Follow pattern of rotating shapes:
2. Follow pattern of alternating letters and similar patterns:
A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B
C F C C F F C CC F FF C CCC F FFF
4. Repeat with lines closer to together and with smaller
fonts, making sure students focus doesn’t stray
higher or lower than the line:
fop pof rip pir tap pat lot tol tab bat sir ris lip pilbor rob keppek moo oom
Bob can bark. Bob can bark. Bob can bark.
Rob can purr. Rob can purr. Rob can purr.
Rat wears a hat. Rat wears a hat. Rat wears a hat.
[eye] [ear] [heart]
Char.’s of Char.’s of Char.’s of
success we’d success we’d success we’d
see we’d hear feel
The football metaphor comes from the way we think about the lesson’s sequence: a narrow, whole class experience in the beginning, a wider expansion of the topic as multiple groups learn at the own pace or in their own ways, then narrowing it back as we re-gather to process what we’ve learned.
General lesson on the topic -- everyone does the same thing
Students practice, process, apply, and study the topic in small groups according to their needs, styles, intelligences, pacing, or whatever other factors that are warranted
The Equalizer(Carol Ann Tomlinson)Foundational ------------------ TransformationalConcrete ------------------------ AbstractSimple --------------------------- ComplexSingle Facet/fact -------------- Multi-Faceted/factsSmaller Leap ------------------- Greater LeapMore Structured --------------- More OpenClearly Defined ---------------- Fuzzy ProblemsLess Independence -------- Greater IndependenceSlower --------------------------- Quicker
R = Role, A = Audience, F = Form, T = Time or Topic, S = Strong adverb or adjective
Students take on a role, work for a specific audience, use a particular form to express the content, and do it within a time reference, such as pre-Civil War, 2025, or ancient Greece.
Sample assignment chosen by a student:
A candidate for the Green Party (role), trying to convince election board members (audience) to let him be in a national debate with Democrats and the Republicans. The student writes a speech (form) to give to the Board during the Presidential election in 2004 (time). Within this assignment, students use arguments and information from this past election with third party concerns, as well as their knowledge of the election and debate process. Another student could be given a RAFT assignment in the same manner, but this time the student is a member of the election board who has just listened to the first student’s speech.
Raise the complexity: Choose items for each category that are farther away from a natural fit for the topic . Example: When writing about Civil War Reconstruction, choices include a rap artist, a scientist from the future, and Captain Nemo.
Lower the complexity: Choose items for each category that are closer to a natural fit for the topic. Example: When writing about Civil War Reconstruction, choices include a member of the Freedmen’s Bureau, a southern colonel returning home to his burned plantation, and a northern business owner
Similar to learning contracts, students are given choices of tasks to complete in a unit or for an assessment. “Entrée” tasks are required, they can select two from the list of “side dish” tasks, and they can choose to do one of the “desert” tasks for enrichment. (Tomlinson, Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom, 2003)
Instead of asking students to describe how FDR handled the economy during the Depression, ask them to rank four given economic principles in order of importance as they imagine FDR would rank them, then ask them how President Hoover who preceded FDR would have ranked those same principles differently.
Decide between… Argue against…
Why did… Argue for…
Areas associated with growth
Areas associated with social activity
-- Summarized from Pat Wolfe’s Brain Matters, 2001
The brain never stops
Rafael, Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Donatello.
Theirs’ a chromatic and plumed rebirth,
‘A daring reflection upon man.
Beyond Hastings and a Wife’s tale in Canterbury,
Galileo thrust at more than Windmills,
He, Copernicus Gravitas.
And for the spectre of debate,
religion blinked then jailed,
errant no more,
thereby errant forever.
Cousin to Pericles, Son of Alexander,
The cosmology of Adam fanned for all,
feudal plains trampled by trumpeters,
man and woman lay awake --
calves on wobbly legs,
staring at new freedom
and Gutenberg’s promise.
How many teachers sequence their lessons for learning
Beginning Middle EndLesson Sequence
The Primacy-Recency Effect
The brain seeks wholeness. It will fill in the holes in partial learning with made-up learning and experiences, and it will convince itself that this
was the original learning all along. To prevent this:
Deal with Misconceptions!
Students should summarize material they already understand, not material they are coming to know.
Perception is when we bring meaning to the information we receive, and it depends on prior knowledge and what we expect to see. (Wolfe, 2001)
Are we teaching so that students perceive, or just to present curriculum and leave it up to the student to perceive it?
As you cooraptoriliate these words, make sure you flimp the scoglottora in proper schimliturn. You will only understand this presentation if hickitow glisps in baggaduanation. Use your joomering and begin.
Look, everyone else reading these words on this slide has begun his or her work, why haven’t you? Seriously, use your joomering and get started.
What exactly do you want me to do?
Hmm. Maybe you’re not ready for the level of comprehension this presentation requires of participants.
No, I really want to know. I can do whatever you ask, but I don’t know what it is. I’m actually a good participant and thinker, but I don’t use your words or have experience with your culture. Do not think of me as unintelligent!
Maybe I could find something from basic teacher texts for you if I only had the time. Just sit here a moment, while I explain this information to the other participants in the room and let them move ahead. I know this means you’ll be further behind than you already are, but it’s all I can offer right now.
Language Thinking Proficiency Proficiency
Unfortunately, we tend to equate low language proficiency with low mental function as well. As a result, we don’t ask ELL students to make comparisons, analyze data, connect ideas, synthesize concepts, or evaluate performances. By not pushing ELL students this way, these students get further behind. What can we do to move our mindset past this conventional way of thinking?
Students in some cultural groups are reluctant to publicly ask questions, particularly of adults, and also may be hesitant to make conjectures. For students from cultures in which students are expected to wait to be asked before speaking, and where students are not expected to ask questions of elders, it is very important for the teacher to explicitly set the expectation for students to ask questions and express their opinions in the…classroom. Otherwise, classroom discourse becomes an exercise in trying to participate in a game where only others know the unwritten rules.
Debra Coggins, Drew,Kravin, Grace Coates, Carroll Davila, Maria Dreux, English Language Learners in the Mathematics Classroom, Corwin Press, 2007, p. 82
Speak slowly and clearly.
Repeat important words/information several times.
Extend time periods for responding to prompts.
Avoid using idioms and colloquialisms until students are more advanced with our culture, or if we use them, take the time to explain them to ELL students.
Gesture and point to what we are referring.
7. Label objects and concepts in the classroom frequently.
8. Provide a lot of specific models, including a lot of hands- on experiences.
9. Use a lot of visuals: pictures, illustrations, graphs, pictographs as well as real objects during instruction.
10. Frequently demonstrate what we mean, not just describe it. From Classroom Instruction that Works with English Language Learners (ASCD, 2006, p. 41), Hill and Flynn offer, “ELLs will have a greater chance of learning and recalling terms if they use their arms to represent the radius, diameter, and circumference of circles or the right, acute, and obtuse angles of polygons.”
11. Make ELL students feel like they belong and have a role to play in classroom learning.
12. Use a lot of thinking aloud or self-talk to model the sequence of doing the task or the language to use when thinking about the concept.
13. Use cooperative learning groups; let ELL students work with English proficient partners.
14. Sometimes let students draw responses instead of writing them; use more than one format for assessing students if the general approach won’t allow ELL students to accurately portray what they know.
15. Find ways to enable ELL students to demonstrate their intellectual skills and maintain dignity.
17. Spend time before lessons building personal background in English language learners so they have an equal chance to attach new learning to what’s already in their minds.
18. Stay focused on how ELL students are doing toward their learning goals, not how they’re doing in relation to other students. We remove ll hope when we ceaselessly cajole ELL students into proficiency by comparing them to language proficient students. It’s a mistake to think they need more motivation or that parading others’ success in front of them motivates them; they desperately want to be proficient.
19. Recognize the difference between conversational language and academic language and that students need help with both; learning one does not mean you’ve learned the other. This means we go out of our way to explain terms like, “similar,” “math exercise,” “vocabulary,” “compare,” “supporting detail,” “analyze,” “instead of,” “not only,” “while,” “unlike,” “common,” “distinct,” “feature,” “trait,” “characteristic,” and, “equal.”
20. Take the time to learn about English language learners home countries.
Additional Ideas from, English Language Learners in the Mathematics Classroom (2007)
21. Invite ELL students to learn and explore ideas in their own languages first, then translate them to English
22. Provide ELL students with response stems, such as, “One thing that I learned was….”
23. Ask students to re-state classmates’ comments as they begin their own comments
24. Relate concepts in story format before specific instruction
25. Incorporate all those vocabulary acquisition strategies you learned years ago as well as the ones that see today. You can’t have too many vocabulary building ideas! Seriously, we all should be vocabulary guru’s no matter what subject we teach.
Just like regular education students, all ELL students are not at the same point of development in language.
Some ELL students can respond to*:
“Show me…,” “Label the….,” “Circle the…,” “Where is…,” “Who has….,” and yes-no questions.
After a year or three, most ELL students can respond to:
“Why…,” “How…,” “Explain…,” “What would happen if…,” “Why do you think…” and “Decide if….”
Successful teachers respond strategically to this variance in ELL students, including those ELL students whose performance is outside these ranges.
*Hill and Flynn citing a
Krashen and Terrell study
At every stage of language acquisition, all of humanity thinks metaphorically. Hispanic, Greek, French, Phillippino, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, American, Egyptian, Iraqi, Italian, and Norwegian people think metaphorically. To not include metaphors, analogies, pattern recognition, and critical thinking in ELL students’ learning experiences due to language struggles is like assuming they don’t know how to feed themselves because they don’t eat the same food as we do. It’s pompous, and it denies ELL students their basic instruction. We can’t save advanced thinking only for advance language proficiency students.
Bilinguals tend to outperform monolinguals on some tests of language and nonverbal intelligence, including the ability to think abstractly about language, or meta-linguistic awareness, and one kind of creativity known as divergent thinking. Other studies have shown that bilinguals are better at executive control, or the ability to solve problems that require us to ignore irrelevant information and to focus on what is important. They also have superior working memories, that is, a better ability to keep information in mind while solving a problem.
-- James Crawford and Stephen Krashen, English Learners in American Classrooms: 101 Questions, 101 Answers (Scholastic, 2007, p. 31)
We only remember concepts that we can understand. So, teach subject content to ELL students in their native language whenever possible (Crawford and Krashen, 2007). As students become proficient in the specific content, place them in “sheltered instruction” experiences in which we focus predominantly on that content, but we weave in English as much as possible without diluting full content mastery.
“The goal in the minds of both students and the teacher is mastering the subject matter, not particular rules of grammar or vocabulary. In this way, students absorb academic English naturally and incidentally, while they are learning useful knowledge. If students are tested, they are tested on subject matter, not language.” (p. 24)
For Translations if your District Doesn’t have Translation Staff:Translation Web sites. Look also for associations of language translators.Use the student’s family members.Contact the Embassy or Consulate in Washington, D.C. or local to youContact a bank or investment firm in your area that does a lot of international financing.
Use local associations of individuals from the specific culture in question. They often have liaisons with the larger community and can contact their membership to find someone who can help with translations.Use translation scanners -- often pocket-sized, that can translate almost any language into English and back again.
Cary, Stephen. Working with English Language Learners: Answers to Teachers’ Top Ten Questions, 2nd edition, Heinemann, 2007
Coggins, Debra; Kravin, Drew; Coates, Grace Davila; Carroll, Maria Dreux. English Language Learners in the Mathematics Classroom, Corwin Press, 2007
Crawford, James; Krashen, Stephen. English Learners in American Classrooms: 101 Questions, 101 Answers, Scholastic, 2007
Feldmand, Jerome A. From Molecule to Metaphor, MIT Press, 2008
Flynn, Kathleen M., Hill, Jane D. Classroom Instruction that Works with English Language Learners, ASCD, 2006
Wormeli, Rick. Metaphors & Analogies: Power Tools for T eaching any Subject, Stenhouse Publishers, 2009
“Tell me about the students in this class.”
“What were you trying to accomplish with this lesson?”
“May I see your class profile?” (also known as a, “learner profile”)
“How did you determine who was in which group today?”
“Why are you teaching this topic this way to these specific students?”
“How did you alter your instruction based on the unique needs of these students?”
“What did you do with students prior to this lesson to prepare them for it?”
H. “How will you have students respond to this information tomorrow or later in the week?”
I. “How did(does) assessment inform your decisions?”
J. “Is there anything you would change in this lesson the next time you teach it?”
K. “How will (or did) you know you were successful in this lesson with every student?”
L. “’Fair isn’t always equal,’ is a popular sentiment in differentiated classrooms. Please show how this is manifest in your classroom.
Richard Cash David Sousa
Carol Ann Tomlinson
Can Do, Heineman
Understanding and Creating Middle School Readers. Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc.
Cooperation, Self-Discipline, and Responsibility in the
Classroom, Skylight Professional Development, 2001
Kinesthetic Learning Across the Curriculum, Discover
Writing Press, 2001
Brain Store, 800-325-4769, www.thebrainstore.com)
City Workshop, WETA Video, P.O. box 2626, Washington, D.C.,
20013-2631 (703) 998-3293. The video costs $49.95. Also
available at www.Ldonline.
Northey, Sheryn. Handbook for Differentiated Instruction, Eye on Education, 2005
Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom, ASCD, 2003
How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms, ASCD, 1995
The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners, ASCD, 1999
At Work in the Differentiated Classroom (VIDEO), ASCD, 2001
Differentiation in Practice: A Resource Guide for Differentiating Curriculum, Grades 5-9. ASCD, 2003 (There’s one for K-5 and 9-12 as well)
Integrating, with Jay McTighe, 2006, ASCD (This combines UBD and DI)
turn now. Where do you begin?