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Fungi. Chapter 31. Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista. Monera. Kingdom Fungi. About 100,000 species. Uses: medicine food Ecological value: major decomposers symbiotic relationships (N 2 fixers) Problems: some strains are deadly athletes foot destroy library books

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Fungi

Chapter 31


  • Plantae Fungi Animalia

  • Protista

Monera


Kingdom Fungi

About 100,000 species

  • Uses:

    • medicine

    • food

  • Ecological value:

    • major decomposers

    • symbiotic relationships (N2 fixers)

  • Problems:

    • some strains are deadly

    • athletes foot

    • destroy library books

    • destroy crops


Some fungi are pathogens

  • About 30% of the 100,000 known species of fungi are parasites, mostly on or in plants.

    • American elms:

      Dutch Elm Disease

  • American chestnut:

  • chestnut blight

Was once one of America's most dominant trees


Some fungi are pathogens

  • Other fungi, such as rusts and ergots, infect grain crops, causing tremendous economic losses each year.


Some fungi are pathogens

  • Curse of the Mummy


Some fungi are persistant

Athletes Foot


Fungi as Decomposers


Kingdom Fungi

Eukaryotic, absorptive

Mostly multicellular (except few, e.g. yeast)

Heterotrophic (decomposers & parasitic)

Mycelium (body of hyphae)


Kingdom Fungi

  • Firm cell walls (generally of “chitin”)

  • “Spores” as reproductive bodies

  • Unique chromosomes and nuclei

  • Includes molds, yeasts, rusts, and mushrooms


  • hyphae - the vegetative bodies of most fungi, constructed of tiny filaments

  • mycelium -an interwoven mat of hyphae


Human hair

Fungal hypha


  • Septate hypha:

  • multicellular

  • walls divided by septa

  • Ceonocytic hypha:

  • continuous cytoplasm mass

  • multinucleate

  • no septa


Haustoria:

  • Modified hyphae found in parasitic fungi

  • Function: absorb nutrients from host

  • Some fungi even have hyphae adapted for preying on animals.


Kingdom Fungi

Division Chytridiomycota

Division Ascomycota

Division Glomeromycota

Division Basidiomycota

Division Zygomycota

Division Deuteromycota


Hyphae

25 µm

Chytrids (1,000 species)

Fungus-like protist

Fig. 31-11

Zygomycetes (1,000 species)

Fungal hypha

Glomeromycetes (160 species)

Ascomycetes (65,000 species)

Basidiomycetes (30,000 species)

?

Deuteromycota


  • The five fungal phyla can be distinguished by their reproductive features.


Division Chytridiomycota

  • mainly aquatic.

  • Some are saprobes, while others parasitize protists, plants, and animals.

  • chitinous cell wall

  • flagellated zoospores

  • the most primitive fungi


Division Zygomycota

“Zygote fungi”(bread molds)

Zygote = “mated” hyphal strands

Live in soil, water

Some are parasites

600 species


Mated hyphal strands


  • The zygosporangia are resistant to freezing and drying.

  • When conditions improve, the zygosporangia release haploid spores that colonize new substrates.

    • Pilobolus aiming its spores.


  • The zygomycete Rhizopus can reproduce either asexually or sexually.


PHYLUMGLOMEROMYCOTA

  • Previously With Zygomycota

  • Small Monophyletic Clade

  • Endomycorrhizae – Arbuscular Mycorrhizae

  • Produce branching Arbuscules


Fig. 31-15

2.5 µm


Plant-Fungal Relationships

Mycorrhizae (“fungus roots”)

90% of tree species have this association

Very important to absorption of water and nutrients


Soil surface

Plant roots

Mycorrhizae

Increases s.a. for absorption


Division Ascomycota

“Sac fungi”(truffles, yeast)

Beer > 6,000 years

Wine > 8,000 years

Lichens

Decomposers, pathogens

“yeast” describes a form of fungi (i.e., non-hyphal)

60,000 species


Division Ascomycota

Scarlet cup

Morchella

truffles


Division Ascomycota

Close up of cheese showing blue-green mycelium of Penicillium roqueforti.

Roquefort cheese


Yeast


LICHENS

Crusrose

Fruticose

Foliose


Lichen


Lichen Anatomy


  • Ascomycetes are characterized by an extensive heterokaryotic stage during the formation of ascocarps.


Division Basidiomycota

“Club fungi”(mushrooms)

Club-shaped reproductive structure

Food

Plant diseases

25,000 species


Fairy Ring


  • The life cycle of a club fungus usually includes a long-lived dikaryotic mycelium.


PHYLUM DEUTEROMYCOTA

No Longer Exist!!

  • 22,000 species.

  • No known sexual stage.

  • Saprophytic, parasitic and predatory.

  • Many produce conidia.

  • Most classified as Ascomycota.

  • Fusarium wilt of tomato, potato and cotton.

  • Athletes foot, ring worm


Division Deuteromycota

  • “Imperfect fungi”(penicillin)

  • Unrelated group

    • Asexual

    • No info on sexual cycle

25,000 species


Penicillin

Woops…

now Ascomycota


Candida albicans

“yeast infection”


Botrytis: “Noble Rot”


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