Memory hierarchy
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Memory Hierarchy. CPS 5401 Fall 2013 http://svmoore.pbworks.com/ 1 Shirley Moore, Instructor October 10 Class. Learning Outcomes. After completing this lesson, you will be able to: Describe how memory references are processed by the hardware and the operating system.

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Memory Hierarchy

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Memory hierarchy

Memory Hierarchy

CPS 5401 Fall 2013

http://svmoore.pbworks.com/1

Shirley Moore, Instructor

October 10 Class


Learning outcomes

Learning Outcomes

  • After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

    • Describe how memory references are processed by the hardware and the operating system.

    • Calculate how memory blocks are mapped to cache locations.

    • Discuss implications of memory system design for application performance.

    • Evaluate ways to change a program to improve use of the cache and memory system.


Processing of memory references

Processing of Memory References


Virtual memory

Virtual Memory

  • Each process’s address space is partitioned in to fixed size pages (e.g., 4Kbytes).

  • Pages are loaded from secondary storage (i.e., disk) into memory as needed.

  • The memory manager keeps track of all pages currently loaded by means of a page table.

  • A page fault occurs when a process requests a page that is not currently loaded into main memory.

  • When a page fault occurs and the main memory is full, the memory manager has to decide which page to evict to make room for the new page.

    • An approximation to Least Recently Used (LRU) is usually used.

  • A translation lookaside buffer (TLB) is a cache for the page table.

    • A TLB miss occurs if the desired mapping is not in the TLB.


Simplified memory hierarchy

Simplified Memory Hierarchy


Cache associativity

Cache Associativity

  • Direct mapped

  • Fully associative

  • Set-associative

  • See http://www.cs.iastate.edu/~prabhu/Tutorial/CACHE/bl_place.html

  • Try it! http://www.cs.iastate.edu/~prabhu/Tutorial/CACHE/bl_place_applet.html


Block identification

Block Identification

  • http://www.cs.iastate.edu/~prabhu/Tutorial/CACHE/bl_ident.html

  • http://www.cs.iastate.edu/~prabhu/Tutorial/CACHE/bl_ident_applet.html


Block replacement

Block Replacement

  • http://www.cs.iastate.edu/~prabhu/Tutorial/CACHE/bl_replace.html


Interaction between cache and memory

Interaction between Cache and Memory

  • http://www.cs.iastate.edu/~prabhu/Tutorial/CACHE/interac.html


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