The urinary system
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The Urinary System. Urine for a Great Time!!!. Function of the Kidneys. Removes salts and nitrogenous wastes Maintains normal concentration of water and electrolytes Maintains pH Maintains blood cell production Maintains blood pressure. What Other Organs Help.

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The Urinary System

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The Urinary System

Urine for a Great Time!!!


Function of the Kidneys

  • Removes salts and nitrogenous wastes

  • Maintains normal concentration of water and electrolytes

  • Maintains pH

  • Maintains blood cell production

  • Maintains blood pressure


What Other Organs Help

  • Contributing Excretory Organs

  • Liver

    • removes hazardous chemicals from the blood.

      • "detoxifies" the blood

      • For this reason, alcoholics and other types of addicts have a higher incidence of liver disease.

    • Some proteins & other nitrogenous compounds are broken down in the liver forming a compound call urea

  • Lungs

    • excrete waste like carbon dioxide and water.

  • Skin

    • rids waste from the body through sweat glands


Primary Urinary Organs

  • 2 Kidneys

    • Renal cortex (outer region)

    • Renal medulla (inner region)

    • Nephron: functional unit of kidney

  • Renal artery/vein: kidney blood flow

  • 2- Ureters: urine excretory duct

  • 1 - Urinary bladder: urine storage

  • 1 - Urethra: urine elimination tube


Kidneys

  • Two reddish organs just above the waist behind the stomach

  • Filter the blood and removes waste


Nephron

  • each kidney contains about 1 million nephrons-renal corpuscle: composed of a tangled cluster called a glomerulus which filters fluid

  • Pathway = glomerulus -» proximal tubulue --» nephron loop (also called loop of henle) --» distal tubule --» collecting duct --» ureter --» bladder


Nephron

  • Filtering unit of the kidney

  • Blood enters full of waste and leaves filtered

  • Blood enters under high pressure and flows into the capillary beds


U-shaped Tubules (Loop of Henle)

  • Most of the ions and water

  • All of the glucose and amino acids

  • Reabsorbed into the bloodstream

  • This is how the body’s water is conserved

  • Homeostasis is maintained


Urine Formation

  • glomerularfiltration - urine formation begins, plasma is filtered

  • tubular reabsorption - returns most of the fluid to the body - PROXIMAL TUBULE

  • tubular secretion - removes what is not needed; produces urine - DISTAL TUBULE


A BIG Filtration system: Nephron


Ureter

  • Connects the kidneys to the urinary bladder


Urinary Bladder

  • Smooth muscle bag

  • Stores waste solution - urine


Urethra

  • Connects bladder to outside of the body

  • Allows urine to pass out of the body


Diagram of Urinary System


So what happens if:

  • Kidney stones

  • Cystitis

  • Kidney infection

    • Pylonephritis

    • Glomerulonephritis

  • Overactive bladder

  • Kidney failure


Kidney Stones


Cystitis vs Kidney Infection

  • Superficial

  • Bladder only

  • Urgency

  • Burning

  • Invasion of kidney and blood stream

  • Fever, chills, flank pain

  • Tenderness

  • Increased WBC


Overactive bladder

  • sudden contractions of the bladder produce sensation of urgency, also more common in women

  • Kegal Exercises


Renal Failure


Catheter


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