Power influence
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Power & Influence. Overview. Power vs. Influence Sources of Power Transfer Power into Influence Three R’s Upward Influence Case Study (OTS Only). Power vs. Influence. Power - capacity to produce effects on others

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Power & Influence

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Power influence

Power & Influence


Overview

Overview

  • Power vs. Influence

  • Sources of Power

  • Transfer Power into Influence

    • Three R’s

    • Upward Influence

  • Case Study (OTS Only)


Power vs influence

Power vs. Influence

  • Power - capacity to produce effects on others

  • Influence -the change in attitudes, values, beliefs, or behavior as a result of power


Expert power

Expert Power

  • Is the power of knowledge

  • Followers can have more expert power than leaders in certain situations

    Example: Leader new to unit


Referent power

Referent Power

  • Refers to the influence one has due to the strength of the relationship between the leader and the followers

  • Often takes time to develop

    Example: Followers admire and respect the leader


Legitimate power

Legitimate Power

  • One’s formal or official authority

    Example: Authority you have due to your rank


Reward power

Reward Power

  • The potential to influence others due to one’s control over desired resources

    Examples: OPRs, EPRs, PRFs, awards and decorations, Officer/Enlisted/Civilian of the Quarter Award


Coercive power

Coercive Power

  • The potential to influence others through the administration of negative sanctions

    Examples: LORs, LOCs, Article 15s, Courts-martial


Transform power into influence

Transform Power into Influence

  • Three R’s

    • Retribution

    • Reciprocity

    • Reason

      • Persuasive

      • Manipulative

  • Upward Influence


Transfer power into influence

Transfer Power into Influence

  • Three R’s

    • Retribution: threatening

      • Direct - explicit threat of punishment (coercion)

      • Indirect - threat is implied rather than stated (intimidation)

  • Pros

  • Produce immediate effect

  • Follows manager specification

  • Cons

  • Creates resistance, resentment, & alienation

  • Stifles initiative & innovation

Effective managers use this sparingly; reserve for crisis


Transfer power into influence1

Transfer Power into Influence

  • Three R’s

    • Reciprocity: compliance by satisfying the needs of both parties (favors thru social obligations)

  • Pros

  • Results w/o resentment

  • Both parties benefit

  • Don’t have to justify actions (bargain)

  • Cons

  • Requires trust

  • Expect negotiations for requests

  • Undercuts group commitment


Transfer power into influence2

Transfer Power into Influence

  • Three R’s

    • Reason: articulation of the concept; subordinates recognize the value of the plan

  • Pros

  • Higher compliance

  • Commitment to group principles

  • Superiors rate highly effective

  • Low levels of stress

  • High job satisfaction

  • Cons

  • Takes time to build trust

  • More people involved, longer it takes


Transfer power into influence3

Transfer Power into Influence

  • Three R’s

    • Reason: articulation of the concept; subordinates recognize the value of the plan

Persuasion

Explicit, direct, and respects the judgment/ability of the subordinate

Manipulation

based on disrespect subordinates’ abilities and a lack of trust in their judgment


Transfer power into influence4

Transfer Power into Influence

  • Upward Influence

    • Influence on superior

    • Shield subordinates from distractions

    • Strengthens manager’s power base

    • Issue Selling: convince boss issue requires attention

    • Trickle-Up Influence


Transfer power into influence5

Transfer Power into Influence

  • Upward Influence

    • Trickle-Up Influence

      • Necessary because of decentralization of today’s workplace

      • Superiors need to be informed

      • Speak up - talk about good ideas to superiors

      • Team up - gather allies for credibility

      • Lead up - display open-mindedness, support, trust

      • Be straightforward


Interim summary

Interim Summary

  • Establish power thru personal attributes (pp. 177-181)

  • Transform power into influence using Three R’s

  • Use power to engender trust

  • Emphasize reciprocity & reason

  • Use retribution in crisis

  • Influence flows up & down chain

  • Upward influence should be for good of group, not personal ambition


Case study

Case Study


Summary

Summary

  • Power vs. Influence

  • Sources of Power

  • Transfer Power into Influence

    • Three R’s

    • Upward Influence

  • Case Study (OTS Only)


A good thought

“ Whoever knows how to restrain and effectively release power finds . . . that power flows back to him.”

A. Bartlett Giamatti

A Good Thought


A better thought

“ Leaders who share their power and their time can accomplish extraordinary things. The best leaders understand that leadership is the liberation of talent; hence they gain power not only by constantly giving it away, but also by not grabbing it back.”

MG Perry Smith, “Learning to Lead”

Marine Corps Gazette, Jan 1997

A Better Thought


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