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Chapter 11 Power and Political Behavior. The Concept of Power. Power – the ability to influence another person Influence – the process of affecting the thoughts, behavior, and feelings of another person Authority – the right to influence another person. Interpersonal Forms of Power.

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Chapter 11 Power and Political Behavior

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Chapter 11 power and political behavior l.jpg

Chapter 11 Power and Political Behavior

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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The Concept of Power

Power – the ability to influence another person

Influence – the process of affecting the thoughts, behavior, and feelings of another person

Authority – the right to influence another person

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Interpersonal Forms of Power

Reward Power – agent’s ability to control the rewards that the target wants

Coercive Power – agent’s ability to cause an unpleasant experience for a target

Legitimate Power – agent and target agree that agent has influential rights, based on position and mutual agreement

Referent Power –based on interpersonal attraction

Expert Power – agent has knowledge target needs

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Power: Compliance or Effectiveness

  • Compliance: Focused on doing things right (management)

    • Reward, Coercive, Legitimate power

    • Least effective but most often used my managers

  • Effectiveness: focused on doing the right thing (leadership)

    • Referent, expert power

    • Develop through interpersonal relationships with employees

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Expert Power!

Which Power Is Most Effective?

  • Strongest relationship to performance & satisfaction

  • Transfers vital skills, abilities, and knowledge within the organization

  • Employees internalize what they observe & learn from managers they consider “experts”

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Guidelines for Ethical Use of Power

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Guidelines for Ethical Use of Power

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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[Criteria for Using Power Ethically]

Does the behavior produce a good outcome for people both inside and outside the organization?

Does the behavior respect the rights of all parties?

Does the behavior treat all parties equitably and fairly?

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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How to spot an asshole (Sutton, 2007)

After talking to the alleged asshole, does the ‘target” feel oppressed, humiliated, de-eneergized, or belittled by the person? In particular, does the target feel worse about him or herself?

Does the alleged asshole aim his or her venom at people who are less powerful rather than at those people who are more powerful? (Kiss up, kick down)

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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[Two Faces of Power]

Personal Power

  • used for personal gain

Social Power

  • used to create motivation

  • used to accomplish group goals

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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  • Social power

    • Create motivation or accomplish group goals

    • Best managers have a high need for social power coupled with a relatively low need for affiliation

      • They want to do good for all of their employees, not just the ones that are their buddies

Watch a flick if time permits

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Kanter’s Symbols of Power

  • Intercede for someone in trouble

  • Obtain placements for favored employees

  • Exceed budget limitations

  • Procure above-average raises for employees

  • Place items on meeting agendas

  • Access to early information

  • Have top managers seek out their opinion

Common Theme: Doing things for others

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Kanter’s Symbols of Powerlessness

  • Top Executives

  • budget cuts

  • punishing behaviors

  • top-down communications

  • Staff Professionals

  • resistance to change

  • turf protection

  • Managers

  • assign external attribution - blame others or environment

  • First-line Supervisors

  • overly close supervision

  • inflexible adherence to rules

  • do job rather than train

Key to overcoming powerlessness:

share power and delegate decision making

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Korda’s Power Symbols

Furnishings

Time

Access

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Organizational Politics

the use of power and influence in organizations

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Political Behavior

actions not officially sanctioned by an organization that are taken to influence others in order to meet one’s personal goals

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Conditions Encouraging Political Activity

  • Unclear goals

  • Autocratic decision making

  • Ambiguous lines of authority

  • Scarce resources

  • Uncertainty

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Influence Tactics

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Influence Tactics

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Influence Tactics

  • The most frequently used influence tactics are:

    • Consultation

    • Rational persuasion

    • Inspirational appeals

    • Ingratiation

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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[Using Influence Tactics ]

  • Develop and maintain open lines of communication in all directions

  • Treat the targets of influence attempts with basic respect

  • Understand that influence relationships are reciprocal

  • Direct influence attempts towards organizational goals

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Political Skill

ability to get things done through positive interpersonal relationships outside the formal organization

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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[Managing Political Behavior]

  • Recognize it

  • Open communication

  • Clarify performance expectations

  • Participative management

  • Encourage cooperation among work groups

  • Manage scarce resources well

  • Provide a supportive organizational climate

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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+

  • Psychological

  • Strain

  • Morale

  • Job Satisfaction

  • Affective

  • Commitment

  • Turnover

  • Intentions

  • Performance

  • Task

  • OCB

+

-

-

Perception

Of Politics

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+

Chang, C., Rosen, C., Levy, P. 2009. AMJ, 52(4): 779-801

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Managing Up: The Boss

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Managing Up: The Boss

SOURCE: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. From “Managing Your Boss,” by J. J. Gabarro and

J. P. Kotter, (May–June 1993): p. 155. Copyright © 1993 by the Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation; all

rights reserved.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Empowerment

creating conditions for heightened motivation through the development of a strong sense of personal self-efficacy

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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Four Dimensions of Empowerment

Meaning

Competence

Self-

determination

Impact

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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[Guidelines for Empowering]

  • Express confidence in employees and set high performance expectations

  • Create opportunities for participative decision making

  • Remove bureaucratic constraints that stifle autonomy

  • Set inspirational and meaningful goals

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


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