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The Mongols. 7 th Grade History. CONTENTS. Genghis Khan Mongol Culture Legacy Sources. Genghis Khan (ca. 1165 -. Temujin born clutching a clot of blood. At nine years old Temujin and his father Yesugei ride to pick a bride from Hoelun’s (his mother) clan.

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the mongols

The Mongols

7th Grade History

  • Genghis Khan
  • Mongol Culture
  • Legacy
  • Sources
genghis khan ca 1165
Genghis Khan (ca. 1165 -
  • Temujin born clutching a clot of blood.
  • At nine years old Temujin and his father Yesugei ride to pick a bride from Hoelun’s (his mother) clan.
  • However, he met Börte along the way – “Love at first sight”.
  • Yesugei dies upon the return home. Poisoned by an enemy Tartar tribe.
  • Yesugei’s clan abandons Temujin and his family.
geography climate
Geography & Climate
  • Mongolia is known to the world as country of "Blue Sky". Along with Southern Siberia this part of Asia has a continental climate, with long, cold, dry winters and brief, mild, and relatively wet summers. In Mongolia there are 250 sunny days a year, often with clear cloudless skies.
  • Wood frame
  • Felt cover (sheep’s wool)
  • Rounded with fire pit in middle
  • Door always faced south
  • Could be set up or taken down to fit their nomadic lifestyle.
  • White Foods: dairy products such as cheese, yogurt, and “airag” (fermented mare’s milk) during the summer.
  • Brown Foods: meat usually boiled and served with wild garlic & onions. They would butcher the animal by cutting open the aorta to cause deadly internal bleeding. They would use the blood for sausages.
  • Firestones: Lacking firewood, Mongols burned animal dung to heat stones for cooking.
  • Salty Tea: Water, milk, tea (green or black) and salt.
  • Most Important Animals: Horses, Camels, Sheep/goats.
the devil s horsemen
“The Devil’s Horsemen”
  • Learned to ride as soon as you could walk.
  • Learning to pivot, dodge, stop, with subtle cues.
  • Learned to use weapons while riding.
  • Horse’s needs nearly as important as a human’s.
  • Provided milk, meat, transportation, protection.
  • Europeans called them “The Devil’s Horsemen”
weaponry armor tactics
Weaponry & Armor & Tactics
  • Archery: shoot more than a dozen arrows per minute at a full gallop.
  • Used composite bows (horn & bamboo).
  • Arrows modified for several uses: piercing armor, carry messages, whistling noises, lit on fire.
  • Warriors who proved loyal and successful in battle were promoted to units of men.
  • Mongols on the front lines carried lances, wore chest armor of hide and iron pieces.
  • Lighter cavalry wore raw silk shirts (pushed silk into the wound and the arrow could pop out).
  • Infantry men were usually prisoners or civilians.
  • Suicide Corp: group galloped toward enemy; turn and fake retreat; when enemy’s horses were tired the entire Mongol force fell upon them.
  • Field commanders used flags, torches and whistling arrows. Their message system was so efficient that armies hundreds of miles apart were able to coordinate their movements perfectly.
  • Obedience and loyalty were strictly followed.
  • Other weaponry included battle axes and scimitars.
  • Shamanism & Animism: everything has a spirit.
  • Some believed the highest god was the eternal blue heaven.
  • Tengri was the god of the mountain that Genghis Khan believed saved his life.
  • A shaman was like a priest that would communicate with the spirit world.
  • Often Mongols adopted the religion of those they conquered (Islam, Buddhism, etc.)
genghis khan s accomplishments
Genghis Khan’s Accomplishments
  • Unified the Mongol clans.
    • Loyal body guard
    • Adopted foreign children
    • Permitted freedom (esp. religious)
    • Used talents of conquered people (kept them alive)
    • Other Mongols that were conquered could choose to serve in his army
    • Rewarded his soldiers generously
  • Developed the Great Yasa (law system).
  • Inspired a lasting empire.

The Government of Genghis Khan
















Roman Empire = 2.51 million sq. miles

65,000,000 people

Greek Empire = 3.2 million sq. miles

35,000,000 people

Mongol Empire = 9.3 million sq. miles

100,000,000 people

2X the size of the

Roman Empire!

great yasa
Great Yasa
  • One must magnify and pay honor to the pure, and the innocent, and the righteous, and to the learned, to whatsoever people they may belong;  and condemn the wicked and the men of iniquity.
  • The first is this:  That ye love another;  second, do not commit adultery;  do not steal;  do not bear false witness;  do not betray anyone. Respect the aged and poor.
  • "Genghis Khan forbade the Mongols to eat anything in the presence of another without inviting him to also partake in the food;  he forbade any man to eat more than his comrades.
  • He forbade them to dip their hands into water and ordered them to use some vessel for the drawing of water.
  • Death to anyone who intentionally lies, or practices sorcery, or spies upon the behavior of others, or intervenes between the two parties in a quarrel to help the one against the other.
  • Death to anyone who urinates into water or ashes.
  • Death to anyone who finds a runaway slave or captive and does not return him to the person to whom he belongs.
  • He forbade them to wash their clothes until they were completely worn out.
  • He ordered men not to hurt each other and to forget offences completely.
  • He ordered men to spare countries and cities which submit voluntarily.
  • If in battle, during an attack or a retreat, anyone drops his pack, or bow, or any luggage, the man behind him must alight and return the thing fallen to its owner;  if he does not so alight and return the thing fallen, he is to be put to death.


Selected by Genghis to rule with wisdom and mercy

(Wasn’t completely supported by power-hungry brothers)





Kublai Khan


Batu Khan



Timur the Lame





Mughul Dynasty

Peace and learning



Empire After Genghis


Wise choice of Genghis…..tried to hold the empire together


Conquered China – Xanadu – Yuan Dynasty


Conquered Russia – Golden Horde


Tall (for a Mongol)…Lame….ruthless beyond words…didn’t prepare for a future

original sources for the mongols
Original Sources for the Mongols?
  • Marco Polo (1254 – 1324)
  • Friar John of Pian de Carpine(1245 – 1247)
  • William of Rubruck(Flemish Franciscan monk, ca. 1210 – ca. 1270)
  • The Secret History of the Mongols
  • Wiencek, Henry, and Glenn D. Lowry. Storm across Asia. New York, NY: HBJ, 1980. Print.
  • Demi, and Demi. Genghis Khan. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Children, 2009. Print.
  • Bankston, John. Genghis Khan. Hockessin: Mitchell Lane, 2013. Print.
  • Helget, Nicole Lea. Mongols. Mankato, MN: Creative Education, 2013. Print.