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  • The Choice is made! Whoa! Ho! Ho! Whoa-oa! The Traveller has come! Nobody choose anything! Did YOU choose anything? No. Did YOU? My mind is totally blank. I didn't choose anything. I couldn't help it. It just popped IN there. What? What just popped in there? I... I... I tried to think... LOOK! No! It CAN'T be! What is it? It CAN'T be! What did you do, Ray? It's the Stay Puff Marshmallow Man


  • Ghostbusters

    • When the evil time traveler comes to destroy earth.


  • Who were they?

    • Nomads

      • Herded livestock

    • Generally acknowledged with coming from the area of Eurasia open plains of Central Asia

      • Mongolia

    • Also called Tartars

    • Expert horsemen

    • Excellent archers and conducted most warfare on horseback


  • Class Question

    • What was so important about the Mongols conducting warfare on horseback at this time?

      • What effect did it have on their enemies?

      • What psychological effect did/does horseback or mobilized warfare have?


  • Who were they?

    • Often seen as bloodthirsty and most times were ruthless to their adversaries but they did have a somewhat complex society

    • They did have

      • Laws

      • Religious practices

      • Advanced military technology

        • Saddle

        • Stirrups

    • Didn’t have

      • Most Mongols were illiterate


  • Who were the Mongols

    • The Mongols are seen as borrowers not creators

    • As we will see that while the Mongols will not produce a Golden Age and they will not impact the world with their own culture they will diffuse other cultures and unite cultures


  • The Fear

    • It was generally known that if the Mongol Horde was heading towards your town, village, city you did not have many options

      • Fight and be crushed and lose your life

      • Retreat to you homes or houses of worship and be burned alive

      • Or give in an hope that you and your people would be saved-this did not always happen!


  • Warriors and Warfare

    • While the Mongols were brutal they were not without organization

    • They could cover 25 miles in a day

    • Horsemen could cover 90 miles

    • Their bows were effective at up to 300 yards-even on horseback

    • Mongol horses were very hardy and could endure traveling great distances

    • The army numbered 80,000 to 100,000 men


  • Warriors and Warfare

    • Armies were divided into

      • Units

      • Light and heavy cavalry

      • Scouting units

      • spies

    • Men were rewarded for bravery and punished for cowardliness


  • Warriors and Warfare

    • The goals of the Mongols prior to a battle was to

      • Know their enemy

      • Know the land

    • The goals of the Mongols during the battle were

      • Win

    • The goals of the Mongols after the battle

      • Destroy those who resisted

      • This ensured that future villages, towns and cities did not resist in the future


  • Genghis Khan

    • In the 1100’s and beginning of the 1200’s the Mongols were involved in clan wars

    • The Mongols lacked a sense of unity

    • Mongols fought themselves more then they fought their enemies

    • There were approximately 30 tribes and about 1.5 to 3 million Mongols


  • Genghis Khan

    • Born between 1155 and 1162

    • His family had been disgraced in a clan war however Genghis became an important clan leader

    • Genghis had tremendous military and organizational skills

    • This allowed Genghis to organize and united the Mongols and then turn them on the world


  • Quick notes about Genghis Khan

    • You should know that he is also known as

      • Temujin (original name)

      • Chingiz Khan

      • Jenghiz Kahn

      • Chinggis Khan

    • Genghis Khan’s adopted name means

      • Genghis-”limitless strength”

      • Khan-ruler


  • On to China

    • Once Khan had unified the Mongols he turned towards China

    • In 1211 the Mongols invaded China

    • By 1215 the Mongols had crossed the Great Wall and seized the Jin (Jurchen) capital of Beijing

    • By 1218 the Khwarazm Empire home of the Silk Road and the trade city of Samarkand had be captured

    • By 1219 the city of Heart in Afghanistan had been captured

    • By 1223 the Mongols had defeated and absorbed the Jin

    • Genghis Khan and the Mongols now turned to the west and Russia


  • Genghis Khan

    • In 1227 Genghis Khan dies

    • This became the end of the first expansion of the Mongols

    • Genghis’ sons carried out the second wave of conquest

    • Genghis’ third son Ogodei or Ugedei became the great Khan


  • What the Mongols had done so far

    • The now controlled key points of the Silk Road-which means they had a great source of wealth

    • They had learned new technology especially from China-siege warfare that would be useful in their conquest of Russia

    • Their small but effective army was able to conquer large amounts of land and bigger empires in a short period of time

      • 1209-1227


  • Ogodei’s Empire

    • The Mongols did not stop when Genghis Khan died

    • Ogodei’s armies moved into China and by 1234 the Mongols were at the doorstep of the Song Empire

    • Korea was forced into a tributary system

    • Ogodei’s real goal however was the Mongol expansion into the west


  • In 1236 the Mongols were ordered west

  • 150,000 to 200,000 troops Lead by Batu (nephew to Ogodei) known as the Golden Horde moved into eastern Europe


  • Europe

    • From 1237 to 1240 most of Russia and Ukraine were captured

    • From 1240 to 1242 Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and Poland fell under Mongol occupation

    • The Mongol invasion had caused great fear and panic in eastern Europe

    • However in 1241 Ogodei died and Batu returned to Mongolian homeland


  • Class Questions


    • The Mongols pushed into eastern Europe and China in a relatively short period of time 1209-1242

      • What do you see as a major problem of this for the Mongols?


    • The Mongol push into Europe stopped short of what is today Austria and Germany because of two thing

      • What two things would have stopped the Mongols in this area


  • Europe

    • By 1242 the Mongols were overextended from China to eastern Europe especially with having such a small army

      • Hard to keep supplied

      • Hard to maintain control of territory conquered

    • In Eastern Europe the Mongols were unfamiliar with fighting in forest and against castled cities

      • Mongols were better equipped to fight on open plains and flat grasslands


  • Pax Mongolica

    • In the 1240’s and 1250’s the Mongols continued to expand their empire mostly in the east and south

      • The Mongols moved further into China putting pressure on the Song Empire

      • Tibet was controlled by the Mongols

    • The Mongols moved into the Middle East destroying the Abbasid Caliphate and now controlled

      • The Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Turkey, Persia, and Syria


  • The Empire

    • The created a single system of government for the areas they controlled

    • They imposed laws

    • Encouraged economic growth

      • Mostly for their tribute system


  • The Empire

    • They created safe routes of travel for people to move about and trade

      • Silk Road

    • Traders from the East could meet with and exchange goods and ideas with those from the west


  • Pax Mongolica

    • This era of peace was called Pax Mongolica

    • It was created in two ways

      • Fear

        • Fear of or the use of force by the Mongols

      • Administratively

        • The Mongols used the Turkic language as their adopted language

        • The Mongols created a system of codes or laws (yasa) mostly borrowed from the Chinese

        • Adopted the use of paper currency

        • Adopted and allowed for religious tolerance

          • Accepted Buddhism and Islam

        • Created a postal system to keep news flowing from one end of the empire to the other


  • Pax Mongolica

    • The Empire

      • The Empire was divided into smaller independent empires or hordes

      • The Mongols began to assimilate into the cultures they had conquered


  • Class Question

    • A Chinese proverb says

      • “One can conquer an empire on horseback, but one cannot govern that empire from horseback”

      • What does this mean and what will it mean for the vast empire of the Mongols?


  • The Empire Breaks Apart

    • In 1260 civil war breaks out among the Mongol leaders to see who will become the next great Khan

    • The nephews and grandsons of Genghis Khan begin to break up the empire into small independent states called Khanates


  • The Khanates

    • The Golden Horde-Russia and Eastern Europe (Kipchak Khanate)

    • Domain of the Great Khan-Mongolia Homeland

    • The Jagadai (Chaghadai) Khanate-Central Asia and lands to the west

    • Il-Khan-Middle Eastern

Khubilai khan
Khubilai Khan

  • One great leader does rise out of the battle for the empire

  • Khubilai Khan

  • By 1271 Khubilai Khan had conquered and united all of China

  • In 1279 the Song Dynasty feel to the Mongols

Khubilai khan1
Khubilai Khan

  • Khubilai did several things for China

    • Rid China of the many warring factions and created the Yuan Dynasty

    • The Mongols adopted the Buddhism and rejected Confucianism

    • Mandarin became the official language of China and is still the official language

    • Expanded and secured the Chinese boarders with the strong Mongol troops

    • Forced most of China’s neighbors to pay tribute

Khubilai khan2
Khubilai Khan

  • Internal Repairs

    • Rebuilt the roads which increased trade

    • Created a government bureaucracy

    • Built new cities for trade

    • Restored trade with the west

    • The Silk Road became the vital avenue of trade and cultural exchange

Khubilai khan3
Khubilai Khan

  • Economy

    • Because of the increase in trade and the re-opening of the Silk Road China became a very wealthy country

    • The merchant class in China became very important

Yuan china
Yuan China

  • While the Mongols opened trade and increased their wealth they also increased the cultural diffusion of Europe?

    • Discuss how?

    • Could one say that the cultural diffusion under the Yuan and the Mongols was as if not more important than the cultural diffusion of the Crusades?

Marco polo
Marco Polo

  • In the 1270’s Marco Polo visited China

  • Polo spoke of the rich and glorious land of China

  • This further stimulated trade with China

Yuan china1
Yuan China

  • After the death of Khubilai Khan China feel into disarray

    • In the early 1300’s China lost 30 to 40 percent of its population because of the bubonic plague

    • There was severe economic loss because of the loss of population and the plague

Yuan china2
Yuan China

  • Civil Wars

    • China experienced a series of civil wars brought on by leaders trying to fill the role of Khan

    • In 1368 Zhu Yuanzhang finally ended the Yuan Dynasty and established the Ming Dynasty (China’s longest lasting Dynasty)

The other mongol khanates
The Other Mongol Khanates

  • The Golden Horde

    • Established control over Russia

    • They did little to promote the advancement of Russia and contributed to the economic and social problems Russia would experience after the Mongols

The golden horde
The Golden Horde

  • In Russia the Mongols cut Russia off from Western European ideas of the times

    • The Russian did not incorporate any ideas from the Renaissance or Reformation into their society so Russia fell behind the western Europe

    • Because of the hard tariff system most of Russia remained poor and most people were serfs because of little money in the country.

    • Both of these problems will keep Russia behind western Europe

The other mongol khanates1
The Other Mongol Khanates

  • Il-Khans

    • Most Mongols in this area converted to Islam

    • Assimilated into the Islamic culture

    • Were attacked by fellow Mongols

    • Finally were displaced by the fast growing Ottoman Turks

The other mongol khanates2
The Other Mongol Khanates

  • Jagadai Khanate

    • Controlled Central Asia

    • Most converted to Islam

    • Controlled parts of the Silk Road

    • Jagadai warlord Timur tries to take back all the lands of Genghis Khan

      • Timur is a ruthless warrior

      • Attempts to take over

        • Russia, Persia, northern India, and parts of the Il-Khan in the Middle East

      • After his death his empire shrinks until the 1500’s when it finally falls apart

Impact of the mongols
Impact of the Mongols

  • The Mongols did not advance cultures but instead diffused cultures

  • Mongols in some cases became assimilators like the Il-Khan

    • In areas where Islam was the primary religion they became Muslims

  • In other areas they reject the Mongol ways for the cultures of the conquered people

    • China

      • Khubilai Khan kept the Chinese from speaking Mongolians, forbid them from marry Mongols and reject Confucianism

      • China never became Mongolized

Impact of the mongols1
Impact of the Mongols

  • The expanse of the Mongol Empire

    • Because of the great expanse of the empire and trade routes cultures were able to interact

      • Europe and China

      • China and the Middle East

    • While the Mongols were brutal they expanded and empire that touched every major civilization in the world

    • The Mongols connected the world and this connection would last until today

Impact of the mongols2
Impact of the Mongols

  • Effects of Europe and Russia

    • Because the Mongols were illiterate the Mongols retarded cultural advancement in Russia

    • The forms of tribute weakened the Russian economy

    • Cities were destroyed

    • In Russia many Mongols became inhabitants of Russia and assimilated into the culture

Class questions
Class Questions

  • Could one say that while the Mongols culturally diffused the areas they conqueror that they also caused problems in the world

    • What were some of the problems?

    • What major event probably would not have happened in Europe if not for the Mongols?