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The Mongols. Mongols.

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mongols
Mongols
  • The Choice is made! Whoa! Ho! Ho! Whoa-oa! The Traveller has come! Nobody choose anything! Did YOU choose anything? No. Did YOU? My mind is totally blank. I didn\'t choose anything. I couldn\'t help it. It just popped IN there. What? What just popped in there? I... I... I tried to think... LOOK! No! It CAN\'T be! What is it? It CAN\'T be! What did you do, Ray? It\'s the Stay Puff Marshmallow Man
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Mongols
  • Ghostbusters
    • When the evil time traveler comes to destroy earth.
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Mongols
  • Who were they?
    • Nomads
      • Herded livestock
    • Generally acknowledged with coming from the area of Eurasia open plains of Central Asia
      • Mongolia
    • Also called Tartars
    • Expert horsemen
    • Excellent archers and conducted most warfare on horseback
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Mongols
  • Class Question
    • What was so important about the Mongols conducting warfare on horseback at this time?
      • What effect did it have on their enemies?
      • What psychological effect did/does horseback or mobilized warfare have?
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Mongols
  • Who were they?
    • Often seen as bloodthirsty and most times were ruthless to their adversaries but they did have a somewhat complex society
    • They did have
      • Laws
      • Religious practices
      • Advanced military technology
        • Saddle
        • Stirrups
    • Didn’t have
      • Most Mongols were illiterate
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Mongols
  • Who were the Mongols
    • The Mongols are seen as borrowers not creators
    • As we will see that while the Mongols will not produce a Golden Age and they will not impact the world with their own culture they will diffuse other cultures and unite cultures
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Mongols
  • The Fear
    • It was generally known that if the Mongol Horde was heading towards your town, village, city you did not have many options
      • Fight and be crushed and lose your life
      • Retreat to you homes or houses of worship and be burned alive
      • Or give in an hope that you and your people would be saved-this did not always happen!
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Mongols
  • Warriors and Warfare
    • While the Mongols were brutal they were not without organization
    • They could cover 25 miles in a day
    • Horsemen could cover 90 miles
    • Their bows were effective at up to 300 yards-even on horseback
    • Mongol horses were very hardy and could endure traveling great distances
    • The army numbered 80,000 to 100,000 men
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Mongols
  • Warriors and Warfare
    • Armies were divided into
      • Units
      • Light and heavy cavalry
      • Scouting units
      • spies
    • Men were rewarded for bravery and punished for cowardliness
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Mongols
  • Warriors and Warfare
    • The goals of the Mongols prior to a battle was to
      • Know their enemy
      • Know the land
    • The goals of the Mongols during the battle were
      • Win
    • The goals of the Mongols after the battle
      • Destroy those who resisted
      • This ensured that future villages, towns and cities did not resist in the future
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Mongols
  • Genghis Khan
    • In the 1100’s and beginning of the 1200’s the Mongols were involved in clan wars
    • The Mongols lacked a sense of unity
    • Mongols fought themselves more then they fought their enemies
    • There were approximately 30 tribes and about 1.5 to 3 million Mongols
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Mongols
  • Genghis Khan
    • Born between 1155 and 1162
    • His family had been disgraced in a clan war however Genghis became an important clan leader
    • Genghis had tremendous military and organizational skills
    • This allowed Genghis to organize and united the Mongols and then turn them on the world
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Mongols
  • Quick notes about Genghis Khan
    • You should know that he is also known as
      • Temujin (original name)
      • Chingiz Khan
      • Jenghiz Kahn
      • Chinggis Khan
    • Genghis Khan’s adopted name means
      • Genghis-”limitless strength”
      • Khan-ruler
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Mongols
  • On to China
    • Once Khan had unified the Mongols he turned towards China
    • In 1211 the Mongols invaded China
    • By 1215 the Mongols had crossed the Great Wall and seized the Jin (Jurchen) capital of Beijing
    • By 1218 the Khwarazm Empire home of the Silk Road and the trade city of Samarkand had be captured
    • By 1219 the city of Heart in Afghanistan had been captured
    • By 1223 the Mongols had defeated and absorbed the Jin
    • Genghis Khan and the Mongols now turned to the west and Russia
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Mongols
  • Genghis Khan
    • In 1227 Genghis Khan dies
    • This became the end of the first expansion of the Mongols
    • Genghis’ sons carried out the second wave of conquest
    • Genghis’ third son Ogodei or Ugedei became the great Khan
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Mongols
  • What the Mongols had done so far
    • The now controlled key points of the Silk Road-which means they had a great source of wealth
    • They had learned new technology especially from China-siege warfare that would be useful in their conquest of Russia
    • Their small but effective army was able to conquer large amounts of land and bigger empires in a short period of time
      • 1209-1227
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Mongols
  • Ogodei’s Empire
    • The Mongols did not stop when Genghis Khan died
    • Ogodei’s armies moved into China and by 1234 the Mongols were at the doorstep of the Song Empire
    • Korea was forced into a tributary system
    • Ogodei’s real goal however was the Mongol expansion into the west
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Mongols
  • In 1236 the Mongols were ordered west
  • 150,000 to 200,000 troops Lead by Batu (nephew to Ogodei) known as the Golden Horde moved into eastern Europe
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Mongols
  • Europe
    • From 1237 to 1240 most of Russia and Ukraine were captured
    • From 1240 to 1242 Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and Poland fell under Mongol occupation
    • The Mongol invasion had caused great fear and panic in eastern Europe
    • However in 1241 Ogodei died and Batu returned to Mongolian homeland
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Mongols
  • Class Questions

#1

    • The Mongols pushed into eastern Europe and China in a relatively short period of time 1209-1242
      • What do you see as a major problem of this for the Mongols?

#2

    • The Mongol push into Europe stopped short of what is today Austria and Germany because of two thing
      • What two things would have stopped the Mongols in this area
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Mongols
  • Europe
    • By 1242 the Mongols were overextended from China to eastern Europe especially with having such a small army
      • Hard to keep supplied
      • Hard to maintain control of territory conquered
    • In Eastern Europe the Mongols were unfamiliar with fighting in forest and against castled cities
      • Mongols were better equipped to fight on open plains and flat grasslands
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Mongols
  • Pax Mongolica
    • In the 1240’s and 1250’s the Mongols continued to expand their empire mostly in the east and south
      • The Mongols moved further into China putting pressure on the Song Empire
      • Tibet was controlled by the Mongols
    • The Mongols moved into the Middle East destroying the Abbasid Caliphate and now controlled
      • The Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Turkey, Persia, and Syria
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Mongols
  • The Empire
    • The created a single system of government for the areas they controlled
    • They imposed laws
    • Encouraged economic growth
      • Mostly for their tribute system
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Mongols
  • The Empire
    • They created safe routes of travel for people to move about and trade
      • Silk Road
    • Traders from the East could meet with and exchange goods and ideas with those from the west
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Mongols
  • Pax Mongolica
    • This era of peace was called Pax Mongolica
    • It was created in two ways
      • Fear
        • Fear of or the use of force by the Mongols
      • Administratively
        • The Mongols used the Turkic language as their adopted language
        • The Mongols created a system of codes or laws (yasa) mostly borrowed from the Chinese
        • Adopted the use of paper currency
        • Adopted and allowed for religious tolerance
          • Accepted Buddhism and Islam
        • Created a postal system to keep news flowing from one end of the empire to the other
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Mongols
  • Pax Mongolica
    • The Empire
      • The Empire was divided into smaller independent empires or hordes
      • The Mongols began to assimilate into the cultures they had conquered
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Mongols
  • Class Question
    • A Chinese proverb says
      • “One can conquer an empire on horseback, but one cannot govern that empire from horseback”
      • What does this mean and what will it mean for the vast empire of the Mongols?
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Mongols
  • The Empire Breaks Apart
    • In 1260 civil war breaks out among the Mongol leaders to see who will become the next great Khan
    • The nephews and grandsons of Genghis Khan begin to break up the empire into small independent states called Khanates
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Mongols
  • The Khanates
    • The Golden Horde-Russia and Eastern Europe (Kipchak Khanate)
    • Domain of the Great Khan-Mongolia Homeland
    • The Jagadai (Chaghadai) Khanate-Central Asia and lands to the west
    • Il-Khan-Middle Eastern
khubilai khan
Khubilai Khan
  • One great leader does rise out of the battle for the empire
  • Khubilai Khan
  • By 1271 Khubilai Khan had conquered and united all of China
  • In 1279 the Song Dynasty feel to the Mongols
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Khubilai Khan
  • Khubilai did several things for China
    • Rid China of the many warring factions and created the Yuan Dynasty
    • The Mongols adopted the Buddhism and rejected Confucianism
    • Mandarin became the official language of China and is still the official language
    • Expanded and secured the Chinese boarders with the strong Mongol troops
    • Forced most of China’s neighbors to pay tribute
khubilai khan2
Khubilai Khan
  • Internal Repairs
    • Rebuilt the roads which increased trade
    • Created a government bureaucracy
    • Built new cities for trade
    • Restored trade with the west
    • The Silk Road became the vital avenue of trade and cultural exchange
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Khubilai Khan
  • Economy
    • Because of the increase in trade and the re-opening of the Silk Road China became a very wealthy country
    • The merchant class in China became very important
yuan china
Yuan China
  • While the Mongols opened trade and increased their wealth they also increased the cultural diffusion of Europe?
    • Discuss how?
    • Could one say that the cultural diffusion under the Yuan and the Mongols was as if not more important than the cultural diffusion of the Crusades?
marco polo
Marco Polo
  • In the 1270’s Marco Polo visited China
  • Polo spoke of the rich and glorious land of China
  • This further stimulated trade with China
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Yuan China
  • After the death of Khubilai Khan China feel into disarray
    • In the early 1300’s China lost 30 to 40 percent of its population because of the bubonic plague
    • There was severe economic loss because of the loss of population and the plague
yuan china2
Yuan China
  • Civil Wars
    • China experienced a series of civil wars brought on by leaders trying to fill the role of Khan
    • In 1368 Zhu Yuanzhang finally ended the Yuan Dynasty and established the Ming Dynasty (China’s longest lasting Dynasty)
the other mongol khanates
The Other Mongol Khanates
  • The Golden Horde
    • Established control over Russia
    • They did little to promote the advancement of Russia and contributed to the economic and social problems Russia would experience after the Mongols
the golden horde
The Golden Horde
  • In Russia the Mongols cut Russia off from Western European ideas of the times
    • The Russian did not incorporate any ideas from the Renaissance or Reformation into their society so Russia fell behind the western Europe
    • Because of the hard tariff system most of Russia remained poor and most people were serfs because of little money in the country.
    • Both of these problems will keep Russia behind western Europe
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The Other Mongol Khanates
  • Il-Khans
    • Most Mongols in this area converted to Islam
    • Assimilated into the Islamic culture
    • Were attacked by fellow Mongols
    • Finally were displaced by the fast growing Ottoman Turks
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The Other Mongol Khanates
  • Jagadai Khanate
    • Controlled Central Asia
    • Most converted to Islam
    • Controlled parts of the Silk Road
    • Jagadai warlord Timur tries to take back all the lands of Genghis Khan
      • Timur is a ruthless warrior
      • Attempts to take over
        • Russia, Persia, northern India, and parts of the Il-Khan in the Middle East
      • After his death his empire shrinks until the 1500’s when it finally falls apart
impact of the mongols
Impact of the Mongols
  • The Mongols did not advance cultures but instead diffused cultures
  • Mongols in some cases became assimilators like the Il-Khan
    • In areas where Islam was the primary religion they became Muslims
  • In other areas they reject the Mongol ways for the cultures of the conquered people
    • China
      • Khubilai Khan kept the Chinese from speaking Mongolians, forbid them from marry Mongols and reject Confucianism
      • China never became Mongolized
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Impact of the Mongols
  • The expanse of the Mongol Empire
    • Because of the great expanse of the empire and trade routes cultures were able to interact
      • Europe and China
      • China and the Middle East
    • While the Mongols were brutal they expanded and empire that touched every major civilization in the world
    • The Mongols connected the world and this connection would last until today
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Impact of the Mongols
  • Effects of Europe and Russia
    • Because the Mongols were illiterate the Mongols retarded cultural advancement in Russia
    • The forms of tribute weakened the Russian economy
    • Cities were destroyed
    • In Russia many Mongols became inhabitants of Russia and assimilated into the culture
class questions
Class Questions
  • Could one say that while the Mongols culturally diffused the areas they conqueror that they also caused problems in the world
    • What were some of the problems?
    • What major event probably would not have happened in Europe if not for the Mongols?
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