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The Mongols . The Mongols were nomadic people from the steppe, They conquered and settled across Asia Built largest unified land empire in world history Lived as pastoralists Herders of domesticated animals Often rode of horseback Formed clans. Uniting the Mongols.

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The mongols
The Mongols

  • The Mongols were nomadic people from the steppe,

    They conquered and settled across Asia

  • Built largest unified land empire in world history

  • Lived as pastoralists

    • Herders of domesticated animals

    • Often rode of horseback

    • Formed clans


Uniting the mongols
Uniting the Mongols

  • Mongol people roamed the eastern steppe in loosely organized clans.

    • Group of people united by a kinship or descent.

  • Took military and political genius to unite the Mongols into a force with 1 purpose.

    CONQUER


Genghis khan
Genghis Khan

  • Around 1200, a Mongol clan leader named Temujin beat out his rival to unite the Mongols under 1 leader.

  • Renamed himself Genghis Khan. AKA Universal Ruler

  • Led the Mongols in conquering much of Asia

  • 1st goal: China

  • Angered by murder of Mongol traders by Muslims, Khan destroyed many cities in the Islamic region across central Asia

  • 1225 – Central Asia was under Mongol control


Why genghis khan
Why Genghis Khan?

  • Was a brilliant organizer

    • Organized warriors into armies of 10,000.

  • Gifted strategist

    • Used tricks to confuse his enemy

  • Used cruelty as a weapon

    • Terrified his enemies into surrender

    • Ex: one city refused to open its gate, he would kill the entire town to show everyone


Mongol empire
Mongol Empire

  • Khan died in 1227 – from illness

  • In less than 50 years, Mongols conquered territory from China to Poland

    • Largest unified land empire in history


Dividing up the land
Dividing up the land

  • Khanates

    • Sons and gradsons continued Ghanghis’ legacy

    • 1260- Divided their empire into 4 regions AKA Khanates

    • 1. Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia & China)

    • 2. Khanate of Chagatai

      ( Central Asia)

    • 3. The Ilkhanate (Persia)

    • 4. Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia)

      Descendant of Genghis ruled each khanate.


As rulers
As Rulers…

  • Many of the areas never recovered

  • Mongols destroyed ancient irrigation systems

  • BUT during peace time they were tolerant

    • Didn’t impose their culture on those they conquered

    • Even adopted many different cultures


Mongol peace
Mongol Peace

  • 1200s to 1300s Mongols imposed stability and law and order

  • Period is often called PaxMongolica or Mongol Peace

  • Mongols guaranteed safe passage for trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries from one end of the empire to another.

  • Ideas and inventions traveled

    • Ex: gunpowder

    • Bubonic plague?


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