Self and moral development
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Self and Moral Development. Middle Childhood thru Early Adolescence. Formations of Self Concept. Preschool Early School Age Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence. Ratio of aspirations to successes. Class activity. Social comparisons.

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Self and Moral Development

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Self and moral development

Self and Moral Development

Middle Childhood thru Early Adolescence


Formations of self concept

Formations of Self Concept

  • Preschool

  • Early School Age

  • Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence


Ratio of aspirations to successes

Ratio of aspirations to successes

  • Class activity


Social comparisons

Social comparisons

  • Cls w/ lower self-esteem will be more effected by external evaluative messages and are more reactive to social feedback

  • Are reluctant to call attention to selves and more self protective


Self esteem

Self esteem

  • Competence

    • In important (to the client) domains

      Plus

  • Social Support


Gender race ethnicity

Gender, Race, & Ethnicity

  • Girls vs. Boys

  • Minorities


Morality

Morality

  • 1) Capacity to judge right from wrong

  • 2) Preferring to act in ways judged right

  • NOT THE SAME AS RELIGION


Morality1

Morality

  • Concern for others

  • Sense of justice

  • Trustworthiness

  • Self-control


Moral development theories

Moral Development Theories

  • Freud’s: Not supported by research

    • 3-5 yrs; superego; identification

  • Piaget: Not exactly accurate

    • Premoral

    • Heteronomous 5-8

    • Autonomous 8-12

  • Kohlberg: Not exactly accurate

    • Preconventional

    • Conventional

    • Post-Conventional


So what do we know

So what do we know

  • By age 3 children judge moral rules as more serious than conventional rules

  • By 4 to 5 they will not want to break a moral rule even if told to do so by an adult

  • By 9-10 they can classify moral vs conventional rules

  • By adolescence they tend to believe parents have the right to regulate and enforce moral behavior, may have minimal conflict around conventional behavior, and have high conflict around personal rules


Altruism

Altruism

  • Emotions

    • After preschool children:

      • Decentering +understanding others emotions + perspective taking + role taking =

        increased empathy/sympathy

        Older children- abstract thinking allows for empathy toward groups not observed

  • Cognitions: need-based reasoning-balancing personal/other needs

    • Pre-school: concern for own needs

    • Early Elem: may see other’s needs & act on them, no guilt

    • Later Elem: recognize helping is required/ socially approved

    • Adol +: sympathy, guilt, duty, self-respect, consistency w/ own values

  • Other

    • Positive self concept (competent & secure) & assertiveness -> altruistic


Parenting that promotes altruism

Parenting that promotes Altruism

  • Authoritative w/ mild power assertion & induction

  • Parents modeling pro social values & happiness @ altruism

  • Altruistic role models they respect

  • Provide opportunities for prosocial action


Other ways to promote empathy

Other ways to promote empathy

  • Help empathize w/ other’s distress

  • Focus on other vs. self = self-control

  • Increase affective & cog empathy

  • Balance concern for self w/ concern for others


Applications

Applications

  • Self esteem

  • Inflated but tentative self-esteem

  • Real vs perceived self dissonance

  • Realistic view of social support

  • Internalized values/standards

  • Parents firm and nurturing

  • Community relationships


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