Moral development
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Moral Development. Kohlberg’s Theory. Closely linked to cognitive development Used Piaget to generate his stages Steps are sequential and progressive. Preconventional Stage. Child makes moral decision based upon reward and punishment Child does not consider the act itself

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Moral Development

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Moral development

Moral Development


Kohlberg s theory

Kohlberg’s Theory

  • Closely linked to cognitive development

  • Used Piaget to generate his stages

  • Steps are sequential and

    progressive


Preconventional stage

Preconventional Stage

  • Child makes moral decision based upon reward and punishment

  • Child does not consider the act itself

  • Substage 1: Obedience and Punishment

    • Child does not understand the conventions of society

    • Fear is motivation – obeys to avoid punishment

    • Child does what other children do

Preschool


Conventional stage

Conventional Stage

  • Child wants to please others, so he goes by the rules

  • Wants to follow the rules and values of society

  • Obsessed with the idea of fairness

  • Substage 1: Good child

    • Concerned with what others think

  • Substage 2: Law and Order

    • Rules are absolute and should be obeyed

    • Doesn’t care if they are fair

Early adolescence


Postconventional stage

Postconventional Stage

  • Child goes beyond himself and society

  • Does what he thinks is right regardless of what others think

  • Many never reach this stage

  • Substage 1: Social Contract

    • Believes laws are relative and may change if necessary


Moral development

  • Substage 2: Principled

    • Personal beliefs are based upon ethics or principles

  • Substage 3: Cosmic

    • Sees the cosmic view and believes in seeking a universe cause

      This is the stage we want people to achieve!


Criticisms

Criticisms

  • Sampled only men

  • Did not sample a variety of cultures

  • Theories deal with moral thinking and moral behavior

  • Self-reported data – is it reliable?


Gilligan s theory

Gilligan’s Theory

  • Believed Kohlberg’s theory was male-biased

  • Emphasizes the female principle of caring

  • Says there is a gender difference


Moral development

  • Individual survival:woman concerned for only self

  • Self-sacrifice and social conformity: thinking dominated by a sense of responsibility and concern for others

  • Nonviolence: includes not only her own needs but those of others

    • Tries not to hurt others or self

    • Major difference with Kohlberg


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