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Strategies of Defense-Mechanics of Arrest. TCLEOSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 08/02/04. 18. Strategies of Defense - Mechanics of Arrest (40 hrs.). Objectives. 18.1.2. Identify methods of weaponless defense. 18.1.2.1 Demonstrate techniques of weaponless defense.

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Strategies of defense mechanics of arrest

Strategies of Defense-Mechanics of Arrest

TCLEOSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

08/02/04



Objectives
Objectives

  • 18.1.2. Identify methods of weaponless defense.

  • 18.1.2.1 Demonstrate techniques of weaponless defense.

  • 18.1.3. Identify methods of weapons defense.

  • 18.1.3.1. Demonstrate techniques of weapons defense.

  • 18.1.4. Identify basic concepts of weapons retention.

  • 18.1.4.1. Demonstrate techniques for weapons retention.

  • 18.1.5. Identify the differences between deadly and non-deadly use of force.

  • Unit Goal: 18.2. Demonstrate knowledge and skills of the physical process of arrest.

  • 18.2.1. Identify factors influencing an officer’s discretionary authority in arrest and non-arrest situations.

  • 18.2.2. Identify risk factors and appropriate response.

  • 18.2.3. Evaluate the advantages of the various methods of approaching, confronting and interviewing the suspect.

  • 18.2.4. Explain methods of applying handcuffs and other restraining devices.

  • 18.2.4.1. Demonstrate techniques of applying handcuffs and other restraining devices.

  • 18.2.5. Explain methods of the physical search of suspects.

  • 18.2.5.1. Demonstrate techniques of physical search of suspect.

  • 18.2.6. Explain methods of escorting and transporting suspects.

  • 18.2.6.1. Demonstrate techniques of escorting and transporting suspects.

  • 18.2.7. Demonstrate the ability to effect an arrest.


Unit Goal: 18.1. The student will demonstrate and know when to use appropriate strategies of defense (Use of Force is a prerequisite for this section).


18 1 1 identify and demonstrate the three basic concepts of weaponless strategies

18.1.1. to use appropriate strategies of defense (Use of Force is a prerequisite for this section).Identify and demonstrate the three basic concepts of weaponless strategies.


Force options overview
Force Options overview : to use appropriate strategies of defense (Use of Force is a prerequisite for this section).

  • Professional Presence - entering into a scene.

  • Verbal Communications - words, language.

  • Weaponless Strategies - takedowns, come alongs, etc.

  • Weapons Strategies - Chemical/Electrical Means mace, stun gun; Baton or Impact Weapons.

  • Deadly Force.


Three basic concepts of weaponless strategies

Three basic concepts of weaponless strategies to use appropriate strategies of defense (Use of Force is a prerequisite for this section).:


Self control
Self-Control - to use appropriate strategies of defense (Use of Force is a prerequisite for this section).

  • The police role in physical arrest is essentially to protect the public and to take the violator into custody.

  • It is important for the officer to maintain physical and emotional control in order to ensure the safety of the officer, the arrestee, and the public.


Balance
Balance – to use appropriate strategies of defense (Use of Force is a prerequisite for this section).

  • Mental balance consists of being prepared to first, control your own emotional and physical self, and then to restrain the violator and, ultimately, the situation, not allowing the emotional level to overcome your self-control and balance.

  • Physical balance is the position that allows you the ability to move while maintaining balance, strength, and advantage. Proper positioning includes staying just outside the suspect's reach but where you can view everything, with your gun side away from the suspect and with a balanced stance.


Awareness
Awareness – to use appropriate strategies of defense (Use of Force is a prerequisite for this section).

  • Observe the entire situation and

  • be aware of where the suspect's hands are,

  • weapons,

  • associates or

  • relatives of the suspect, escape routes for the suspect, and

  • your own footing.



Verbal communication should be present during all demonstrations except range firing
Verbal Communication should be present during all demonstrations (except range firing).

  • cultural awareness

  • verbal persuasion


Principles of self defense
Principles of Self-Defense: demonstrations (except range firing).

  • Prevention –

    • be aware of potential dangers;

    • avoid overextending yourself;

    • maintain the proper distance to allow yourself adequate reaction time.

  • If attacked, move out of the line of force rather than try to stop the force.


18 1 2 identify methods of weaponless defense

18.1.2. Identify methods of weaponless defense. demonstrations (except range firing).


Weaponless strategies
Weaponless Strategies: demonstrations (except range firing).

  • touching

  • joint-locking

  • pressure points

  • hand strikes/foot strikes

  • blocks

    • hands

    • arms

    • legs





Weapons strategies specific training recommended for the desired weapon s
Weapons Strategies: ground position.[specific training recommended for the desired weapon(s)]

  • handcuffs (mandatory)


Optional weapons
( ground position.Optional Weapons:)

  • kubotan

  • handler-12

  • side handle baton

  • expandable baton

  • other such weapons


Chemical and electrical devices
Chemical and Electrical Devices: ground position.

  • tazer

  • stun gun

  • oc pepper spray

  • mace

  • similar weapons


Impact weapons
Impact Weapons ground position.

  • straight baton

  • expandable baton

  • side-handle baton

  • other such weapons


A baton is classified as a weapon capable of inflicting serious bodily injury or death;however, impact weapons may be used in lawful situations requiring a degree of force greater than the use of weaponless strategies but less than the use of deadly weapons/force. [(Penal Code, 46.01(1), 46.15.]



When an officer is a member of a tactical squad in a crowd or riot control formation, the baton may be used to move, separate, disperse or deny a person access to a structure or through an area.


When an officer is attacked by a suspect armed with a non-firearm type weapon, the officer may use the baton or disarm, distract, or disable the suspect, or to hold the suspect at bay until additional assistance arrives.


When an officer is assaulted by an unarmed suspect, the baton can be used to disable the suspect or to defend against an assault.


When the officer is confronted by several suspects who are threatening the officer, when the suspects are capable of carrying out the threats, and when they make an overt act to carry out the threats, the officer may use the baton to fend off an attack or assault and make an arrest.


When the officer is confronted by a suspect(s) who the officer has reasonable cause to believe committed a crime, and the suspect(s) refuses or fails to comply with the verbal commands prior to searching or handcuffing, the baton may be used to obtain compliance.


Justification of baton use

Justification of baton use: officer has reasonable cause to believe committed a crime, and the suspect(s) refuses or fails to comply with the verbal commands prior to searching or handcuffing, the baton may be used to obtain compliance.




Consider the need for immediate control of the suspect(s) or situation due to tactical determinations, such as

  • the officer's perception of the suspect's knowledge or apparent knowledge of a fighting form,

  • the assumption of an aggressive stance by the suspect, or

  • the suspect's inability to be restrained by lesser means due to the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs. (Penal Code, Section 9.51)


Guidelines for baton use
Guidelines for Baton use: situation due to tactical determinations, such as

  • Should normally be positioned between the officer and the suspect.

  • Maintain a good defensive position whether left-or right-handed.

  • DO NOT INTENTIONALLY USE A BATON TO STRIKE AT THE HEAD OR THROAT.


Define strike and non strike areas

Define Strike and Non-Strike areas: situation due to tactical determinations, such as


Strike areas
Strike Areas situation due to tactical determinations, such as

  • center mass of arms

  • center mass of legs

  • abdomen


Non strike areas see also deadly force below
Non-strike areas situation due to tactical determinations, such as (see also deadly force below)

  • above plane of shoulders

  • groin

  • center of back (spine)/kidney area

  • pectoral region (chest)


Definition would apply to whichever system is used

Definition would apply to whichever system is used. situation due to tactical determinations, such as


18 1 3 1 demonstrate techniques of weapons defense

18.1.3.1. Demonstrate techniques of weapons defense. situation due to tactical determinations, such as


18 1 4 identify basic concepts of weapons retention

18.1.4. situation due to tactical determinations, such as Identify basic concepts of weapons retention.


18 1 4 1 demonstrate techniques for weapons retention

18.1.4.1. Demonstrate techniques for weapons retention. situation due to tactical determinations, such as


18 1 5 identify the differences between deadly and non deadly use of force

18.1.5. situation due to tactical determinations, such as Identify the differences between deadly and non-deadly use of force.


Define deadly force
Define deadly force situation due to tactical determinations, such as :

  • Peace officers may use deadly force to protect themselves or others when and to the degree they reasonably believe an immediate threat of death or serious bodily injury exists.


Relate deadly force to
Relate deadly force to situation due to tactical determinations, such as :

  • empty hand techniques

  • control weapons

  • chemical and electrical devices

  • firearms

  • vehicles

  • other related topics

    • Penal Code

    • units dealing with arrest



18.2.1. physical process of arrest.Identify factors influencing an officer's discretionary authority in arrest and nonarrest situations.


Factors influencing discretionary authority

Factors influencing discretionary authority physical process of arrest.:


Officer discretion in arrest nonarrest situation
Officer discretion in arrest/nonarrest situation physical process of arrest.

  • Officer discretion in arrest/non-arrest situation

  • Ascertained likelihood of behavioral disorders

  • CCP Sec. 14.06(b)


18 2 2 identify risk factors and appropriate response

18.2.2. physical process of arrest.Identify risk factors and appropriate response.


Risk factors
Risk factors physical process of arrest.:

  • Suspect's mental attitude/behavioral disorders

  • Time and location

  • Intoxication

  • Spectators supportive attitude toward subject

  • Officer attitude


18.2.3. Evaluate the advantages of the various methods of approaching, confronting and interviewing the suspect.


Direct approach on foot
Direct approach (on foot): approaching, confronting and interviewing the suspect.

  • Advantage - observe all movements

  • Disadvantage - lose surprise element and vulnerable to resistance


Rear approach on foot
Rear approach (on foot): approaching, confronting and interviewing the suspect.

  • Advantages- surprise; reduces probability of direct attack

  • Disadvantage - may provoke physical response in defense of him/her self


Side approach on foot
Side approach (on foot): approaching, confronting and interviewing the suspect.

  • Advantage - suspect off balance

  • Disadvantage - cannot observe all movement; reduces surprise


One vs two officer on foot
One vs. two officer (on foot): approaching, confronting and interviewing the suspect.

  • Visual contact with each other

  • Approach should be spread in V formation

  • Plan confrontation

  • Communicate

  • One officer in charge

  • Side officer keep hands free, gun away from suspect, observe suspect hands.


Interviewing subject s

Interviewing subject(s): approaching, confronting and interviewing the suspect.


One officer
One officer approaching, confronting and interviewing the suspect.

  • observe all of the subject's actions

  • gun side away from subject

  • non-restricted physical position to allow movement

  • hands free of unnecessary items


Two officers
Two officers- approaching, confronting and interviewing the suspect.

  • same as one officer

  • V position

  • one officer in command


Physical contact position
Physical contact - position: approaching, confronting and interviewing the suspect.

  • to side or rear of subject when possible

  • subject should be off balance

  • keep subject verbally informed of your actions and expectations


Frisk if justified for
Frisk, if justified, for: approaching, confronting and interviewing the suspect.

  • weapons

  • officer and/or public safety

  • one officer vs. two officers

  • stress safety

  • stress pat down vs. search


Arrest
Arrest: approaching, confronting and interviewing the suspect.

  • In clear language, advise the subject of the reason for the arrest.

  • Subjects may resist officers simply because they don’t understand the nature of the arrest.


18 2 4 explain methods of applying handcuffs and other restraining devices

18.2.4. Explain methods of applying handcuffs and other restraining devices.

Provide each student with a set of handcuffs and the opportunity to apply handcuffs on other students. Stress safety throughout the lessons.


Stress safety throughout

Stress safety throughout restraining devices.


Positions
Positions: restraining devices.

  • standing

  • sitting

  • prone

  • kneeling


One suspect
One suspect restraining devices.

  • hands to rear

  • palms out

  • keyhole up

  • handcuffs double-locked

  • in an emergency, apply in any manner possible


Two suspects and one set of handcuffs
Two suspects and one set of handcuffs: restraining devices.

  • right hand to right hand

  • left hand to left hand

  • this procedure causes them difficulty in running


Two suspects and two sets of handcuffs
Two suspects and two sets of handcuffs: restraining devices.

  • hands to rear

  • arms inter-locking

  • palms out

  • keyhole up

  • handcuffs double-locked


Supplements to handcuffs
Supplements to handcuffs: restraining devices.

  • tie

  • belt

  • shoe lace

  • strips of cloth

  • plastic handcuffs



  • Baskin v. Smith, 50 FED App. 731 (6th Cir. 2002) restraining devices.:

  • Handcuffing too tightly and failing to double-lock the handcuffs may lead to an excessive force claim, particularly when the officers have been placed on notice after a suspect’s complaints.

  • See Kostrzewa v. City of Troy, FED App. 0128 (6th Cir.)

  • See Horton v. Town of Brookfield, USDC-CONN, 2001



Stress safety throughout1

Stress safety throughout restraining devices.


Open area search
Open area search: restraining devices.

  • from the rear

  • watch the arms

  • one holding suspect's waistband from rear

  • search with free hand


Prone search
Prone Search restraining devices.

  • Face down

  • Arms extended outward

  • Legs spread


Kneeling search
Kneeling Search restraining devices.

  • On knees

  • Legs crossed

  • Hands behind head

  • Fingers laced

  • Back arched


Note: restraining devices.

  • Let hands do the searching.

  • Officers' eyes should be on subject to observe any type of overt movement.

  • The primary advantage of holding suspect's waistband from the rear is officer safety.

    • Should suspect attempt resistance, he/she may be pulled backward or pushed forward, giving the officer an opportunity to step away.



Provide opportunity for student to practice proper procedures of searching on other students

Provide opportunity for student to practice proper procedures of searching on other students.


Wall search
Wall Search procedures of searching on other students.

  • Note to the instructor: Most authorities agree that the wall search is a high-risk technique. The instructor may need to discuss wall search techniques that have been used. If it is discussed, information about procedures that should be used should be obtained from the academy's defensive tactics instructor(s).






Escort and transport methods

Escort and transport methods situation, as outlined below.


Walking

Walking situation, as outlined below.


One officer one suspect
One officer, one suspect: situation, as outlined below.

•officer to the rear and side of suspect with gun side away

•holding waistband or belt between cuffed hands vs. holding arm


One officer two suspects

One officer, two suspects: situation, as outlined below.

officer to rear


Two officers one suspect

Two officers, one suspect: situation, as outlined below.

•to rear of suspect

•one officer on either side

•one officer holding either arm


Two officers two suspects
Two officers, two suspects: situation, as outlined below.

  • to rear of suspects

  • one officer on either side of suspects

  • holding waistband or belt between cuffed hands vs. holding arm


Transporting

Transporting situation, as outlined below.


One officer one suspect1

One officer, one suspect: situation, as outlined below.

•right front seat, if no cage

•seat belt fastened

•door locked

•officer place his/her gun on left side


Two officers one suspect1
Two officers, one suspect: situation, as outlined below.

•right rear seat, if no cage

•officer, left rear seat, if no cage

•seat belt fastened

•door locked

•officers place their guns on left side


Two officers two suspects1
Two officers, two suspects: situation, as outlined below.

•rear right and center rear seat, if no cage

•officer left rear seat, if no cage

•door locked

•officers should place weapons on left side, if no cage


Note: situation, as outlined below.Because of the danger involved for the officer, one officer should not attempt to transport more than oneprisoner at a time without access to special transporting equipment.


For officer safety situation, as outlined below., a peace officer should search the seating or carrying area of his/her vehicle for weapons orcontraband when going on duty and also after each prisoner transport is completed.



18 2 7 demonstrate the ability to effect an arrest

18.2.7. transporting suspects.Demonstrate the ability to effect an arrest.


Components
Components transporting suspects.:

  • keep prisoner in sight

  • maintain control

  • handcuffing

  • transporting



"You will never do anything in this world without courage. It is the greatest quality of the mind next to honor."    - James Allen


Pursuant to Sixth Circuit Rule 206 It is the greatest quality of the mind next to honor."ELECTRONIC CITATION: 2001 FED App. 0128P (6th Cir.)File Name: 01a0128p.06UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS


UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT It is the greatest quality of the mind next to honor."DISTRICT OF CONNECTICUTELIZABETH B. HORTON, :Plaintiff, :: CIVIL ACTION NO.v. : 3:98CV01834 (JCH):TOWN OF BROOKFIELD, et al., :Defendants. : MARCH 15, 2001


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