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Reproduction. Chapter 27. Reproduction. The creation of new individuals Exchange genetic material 2+ individuals Meiosis & gametes required. Reproduction System. Reproductive organs Reproductive tract Accessory glands & organs. Reproductive Organs. Gonads Testes & ovaries Function

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Reproduction

Chapter 27


Reproduction

  • The creation of new individuals

  • Exchange genetic material

  • 2+ individuals

  • Meiosis & gametes required


Reproduction System

  • Reproductive organs

  • Reproductive tract

  • Accessory glands & organs


Reproductive Organs

  • Gonads

    • Testes & ovaries

  • Function

    • Produce sex cells- Gametes

    • Produce hormones


Gamete Production

  • Male

    • Testes

      • Spermatozoa (sperm)

        • ~100-300 million/ day

      • Production begins at puberty

      • Ends at death

  • Female

    • Ovaries

      • Oocyte (egg)

        • 1/ month

      • Production begins in embryo

        • Cell division arrested in meiosis

        • Division resumes at puberty

        • Ends at menopause


Male Gonads


Female Gonads


Spermatozoa


Oocyte


Produce Hormones

  • Males

    • Testosterone

  • Females

    • Estrogen & progesterone


Female Reproductive


Female Reproductive

  • Gonads

    • Paired ovaries

  • Accessory glands

    • Mammary

    • Greater vestibular

    • Paraurethral

  • Reproductive tract

    • Oviduct

      • Aka Uterine tubes

      • Aka Fallopian tubes


Ovaries

  • Gonads

    • Paired ovaries

  • Location

    • Walls of pelvic inlet

    • Lateral to uterus & posterior to fallopian tube

  • Function

    • Oogenesis- oocyte production

      • Begins in fetus

      • At birth 2 Million immature ova

        • Arrested at prophase I

    • Hormone production


Ovary Structure

  • Follicular cells

    • Oocyte surrounded by supportive cells

  • Primary Follicle

    • Immature ova surrounded by follicular cells

    • ~400,000 immature follicles

  • Immature follicles are stimulated to complete meiosis

    • Stimulated by pituitary hormone

      • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

  • Ovulation

    • Release of 1 mature oocyte

    • Graafian follicle


Oogenesis


Mature Follicle


Oocyte Maturation

http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/ovarianuterine.html


Ovulation


Hormone Production

  • Prior to ovulation

    • Follicular cells secrete estrogen

  • Following ovulation

    • Follicular cells continue to secrete estrogen & progesterone

  • Becomes hormone structure

  • Corpus luteum

    • “yellow body”


Oviduct

  • Oviduct extends from ovaries to uterus

  • Ovaries are not directly connected to tube

  • Function

    • Draw ovulated oocyte into tube

    • Transports egg to uterus

      • Cilia

      • Smooth muscle

    • Site of fertilization


Discontinuous Reproductive Tract

Pelvic Inflammatory disease


Oocyte Transport

  • Rhythmic smooth muscle contraction help move oocyte

  • Ciliated epithelial cells “brush” oocytes down duct

  • Distance- ~4-5 inches

  • Travel time 3-4 days


Oviduct

http://www.sdmiramar.edu/faculty/kpetti/Health101/Unit%203/ReproPics&Movies/Ovulation.mov


Oviduct Structure

  • 3 anatomical regions

    • Infundibulum

    • Ampulla

    • Isthmus


Infundibulum

  • “funnel”

  • Expanded region of tube closest to ovary

  • Surrounds ovary

  • Fimbrae

    • “fringe” finger-like extensions of infundibulum

    • Movements draw ovulated oocyte into tube


Infundibulum


Fimbriae


Ampulla

  • “flask”

  • Intermediate portion

  • Site of fertilization


Ampulla


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hAgOk3-loUY&NR=1


Isthmus

  • “narrowing”

  • Terminal segment

  • Drains into uterus


Ectopic Pregnancy


Tubal Ligation


Uterus

  • Thick muscular chamber

  • Site of embryonic/ fetal development

  • Location- inferior pelvic cavity

    • Anterior to rectum

    • Posterior to bladder

    • Size 3” X 2”


Uterus Structure

  • Four regions:

  • Fundus

  • Corpus

  • Isthmus

  • Cervix


Fundus

  • Rounded region superior to entrance of oviduct


Corpus

  • Aka body

  • Medial tapering region between fundus & cervix

  • Site of embryonic/ fetal development


Isthmus

  • Narrowing inferior region of uterus


Cervix

  • Inferior portion projecting into vaginal canal (0.5 in)


Mucus Plug

  • Prevents pathogens from moving up reproductive tract


Uterus

  • Composed of 3 tissue layers

  • Perimetrium

    • Outer most layer

    • Serous layer continuous w/ parietal peritoneum

  • Myometrium- middle layer

    • 90% of uterine mass

    • Longitudinal, circular & oblique smooth muscle layers

    • Produces force- pushes fetus into vaginal canal

  • Endometrium

    • Highly variable in thickness

    • Increases vascularization & glandular tissue

    • Development stimulated by high estrogen & progesterone


Vascularization


Endometrium


Endometrium

  • Lining supports fetus during development

  • Maternal tissue fuses w/ fetal tissue to form placenta

  • Placenta allows exchange between fetal and maternal circulatory systems


Menstruation

  • Drop in LH & FSH result in drop of Progesterone and estrogen result in loss of endometrial lining

  • Pregnancy maintains high progesterone and estrogen levels and delays menstruation

    • Corpus luteum does not degenerate

    • Stimulated by Human Chorionic Gonadotropin produced by uterus


Caeserian Section

  • 1 in 5 births


Clinical Application

  • Endometriosis

  • Endometrium grows in locations outside the uterus

  • 20% of women

  • Treatment

    • Medications- progesterone “pill”

    • surgery

  • Complications

    • Tissue can swell & bleed in response to hormones each month

    • Causes inflammation, adhesion, cysts, & scar tissue

    • Can damage affected organs


Endometriosis


Fibroids

  • Fibroids

  • Aka Fibromyomas, Leiomyomas

  • Noncancerous tumors

  • 20-25% women develop typ after age of 30


Vagina

  • Elastic muscular tube extending from the cervix to the exterior

  • Hymen

    • Epithelial fold at entrance into vagina

  • Protective mucus

    • Alkali mucus neutralizes Acidic pH

    • Transudate

  • Rugae

  • Function

    • Passage for menstrual substances

    • Copulatory structure & sperm receptacle

    • Birth canal


Rugae Allows Expansion


Hymen

  • Found at interoitus

  • Highly variable

  • Perforate

  • Childbirth destroys all but remnants

  • Cultural stigma


Pubococcygeal Muscles

  • Kegel Muscles

  • Important during childbirth

  • Contract during arousal


Clinical Application

  • Vagina supports a large number of “good” bacteria and fungi

  • Lactobacilli

    • Sugar to lactic acid (pH 4.0-5.0)

    • Acidity prevents “bad” bacteria

  • Candids albicans

    • Regulated populations become overgrown

    • Results in Candidiasis/ vaginal thrush/ yeast infection


Mesentaries

  • Broad ligament

  • Suspensory ligament

  • Ovarian ligament

  • Round ligament


Broad Ligament

  • Extension of parietal peritoneum

  • Covers

    • Ovaries

    • Fallopian tubes

    • Uterus

  • Specializations

    • Mesovarium

      • Portion of broad ligament attached to ovary

    • Mesosalpinx

      • Portion of broad ligament attached to oviduct


Suspensory Ligament

  • Ligament between abdominal wall & ovary

  • Support ovarian blood vessels (ovarian artery & vein)


Ovarian Ligament

  • Ligament between ovary & uterus


Round Ligament

  • Ligament between uterus & abdominal wall

  • Secured w/in inguinal canal CT


Prolapsed Uterus

  • Prolapsed uterus

  • Mesentary function compromised

  • Caused by aging and childbirth

  • Correlated with smoking and obesity

  • Do those Kegel exercises!!


External Genitalia

  • Referred to as pudendum “shameful”

  • Mons pubis

    • Thick adipose pad covering & cushioning pubic symphysis

  • Labia majora

    • Outer folds of skin

    • Covered w/ pubic hair

    • Contain sebaceous & sudiferous glands

  • Labia minora

    • Inner folds of skin

    • Devoid of pubic hair & most sudiferous glands

  • Clitoris

    • Cylindrical mass of erectile tissue

    • Anterior union of labia minora

    • Prepuce covers

  • Vestibule

    • Common space between labia minora

    • Greater vestibular gland

      • Secretes majority of lubricating mucus

      • Homologous to bulbourethral gland


Mons Pubis


Labia Minora


Clitoris

  • Homologous to male penis

  • Comprised of

    • Corpora cavernosa

    • Corpus spongiosum

    • Glans

    • Prepuce

      • Subject to circumcision


Accessory Glands

  • Mammary glands

  • Secondary sexual characteristic

  • Produce nutrients and passive immunity for offspring

  • Colostrum

    • Lower in fat

      • Baby can lose up to 10% wt

    • Macrophages

    • Contains proteins such as immunoglobulins

      • Mom’s antibodies

  • Mature milk

    • Over first 2 weeks

    • Increased volume (1L/day)

    • Higher fat content 3-6% (lactose)

    • Stimulates Lactobacilli in intestine

    • Brks down to glucose & galactose

      • Galactose needed for myelin production


Paraurethral Gland


Paraurethral Gland

  • AKA Skene’s gland

  • Homologous to prostate tissue

  • Found in similar location


  • G spot aka Paraurethral gland

  • Vaginal orgasm triggers ejaculation from glands


Greater Vestibular Gland

  • AKA Bartholin’s

  • Homologous to male Bulbourethral gland

  • Produces small amounts of lubricating fluid


Homologous to male bulbourethral gland


Penis

Corpora cavernosa

Corpora spongiosum

Prox shaft of penis

Penile urethra

Bulbourethral glands

Scrotum

Clitoris

Erectile tissue

Vestibular bulbs

Labia minora

Vestibule

Grtr vestibular gland

Labia Majora

Male-female Comparison


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