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Reproduction. Chapter 27. Reproduction. The creation of new individuals Exchange genetic material 2+ individuals Meiosis & gametes required. Reproduction System. Reproductive organs Reproductive tract Accessory glands & organs. Reproductive Organs. Gonads Testes & ovaries Function

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Reproduction

Reproduction

Chapter 27


Reproduction1
Reproduction

  • The creation of new individuals

  • Exchange genetic material

  • 2+ individuals

  • Meiosis & gametes required


Reproduction system
Reproduction System

  • Reproductive organs

  • Reproductive tract

  • Accessory glands & organs


Reproductive organs
Reproductive Organs

  • Gonads

    • Testes & ovaries

  • Function

    • Produce sex cells- Gametes

    • Produce hormones


Gamete production
Gamete Production

  • Male

    • Testes

      • Spermatozoa (sperm)

        • ~100-300 million/ day

      • Production begins at puberty

      • Ends at death

  • Female

    • Ovaries

      • Oocyte (egg)

        • 1/ month

      • Production begins in embryo

        • Cell division arrested in meiosis

        • Division resumes at puberty

        • Ends at menopause






Produce hormones
Produce Hormones

  • Males

    • Testosterone

  • Females

    • Estrogen & progesterone



Female reproductive
Female Reproductive

  • Gonads

    • Paired ovaries

  • Accessory glands

    • Mammary

    • Greater vestibular

    • Paraurethral

  • Reproductive tract

    • Oviduct

      • Aka Uterine tubes

      • Aka Fallopian tubes


Ovaries
Ovaries

  • Gonads

    • Paired ovaries

  • Location

    • Walls of pelvic inlet

    • Lateral to uterus & posterior to fallopian tube

  • Function

    • Oogenesis- oocyte production

      • Begins in fetus

      • At birth 2 Million immature ova

        • Arrested at prophase I

    • Hormone production


Ovary structure
Ovary Structure

  • Follicular cells

    • Oocyte surrounded by supportive cells

  • Primary Follicle

    • Immature ova surrounded by follicular cells

    • ~400,000 immature follicles

  • Immature follicles are stimulated to complete meiosis

    • Stimulated by pituitary hormone

      • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

  • Ovulation

    • Release of 1 mature oocyte

    • Graafian follicle




Oocyte maturation
Oocyte Maturation

http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/ovarianuterine.html



Hormone production
Hormone Production

  • Prior to ovulation

    • Follicular cells secrete estrogen

  • Following ovulation

    • Follicular cells continue to secrete estrogen & progesterone

  • Becomes hormone structure

  • Corpus luteum

    • “yellow body”


Oviduct
Oviduct

  • Oviduct extends from ovaries to uterus

  • Ovaries are not directly connected to tube

  • Function

    • Draw ovulated oocyte into tube

    • Transports egg to uterus

      • Cilia

      • Smooth muscle

    • Site of fertilization


Discontinuous reproductive tract
Discontinuous Reproductive Tract

Pelvic Inflammatory disease


Oocyte transport
Oocyte Transport

  • Rhythmic smooth muscle contraction help move oocyte

  • Ciliated epithelial cells “brush” oocytes down duct

  • Distance- ~4-5 inches

  • Travel time 3-4 days


Oviduct1
Oviduct

http://www.sdmiramar.edu/faculty/kpetti/Health101/Unit%203/ReproPics&Movies/Ovulation.mov


Oviduct structure
Oviduct Structure

  • 3 anatomical regions

    • Infundibulum

    • Ampulla

    • Isthmus


Infundibulum
Infundibulum

  • “funnel”

  • Expanded region of tube closest to ovary

  • Surrounds ovary

  • Fimbrae

    • “fringe” finger-like extensions of infundibulum

    • Movements draw ovulated oocyte into tube




Ampulla
Ampulla

  • “flask”

  • Intermediate portion

  • Site of fertilization




Isthmus
Isthmus

  • “narrowing”

  • Terminal segment

  • Drains into uterus




Uterus
Uterus

  • Thick muscular chamber

  • Site of embryonic/ fetal development

  • Location- inferior pelvic cavity

    • Anterior to rectum

    • Posterior to bladder

    • Size 3” X 2”


Uterus structure
Uterus Structure

  • Four regions:

  • Fundus

  • Corpus

  • Isthmus

  • Cervix


Fundus
Fundus

  • Rounded region superior to entrance of oviduct


Corpus
Corpus

  • Aka body

  • Medial tapering region between fundus & cervix

  • Site of embryonic/ fetal development


Isthmus1
Isthmus

  • Narrowing inferior region of uterus


Cervix
Cervix

  • Inferior portion projecting into vaginal canal (0.5 in)


Mucus plug
Mucus Plug

  • Prevents pathogens from moving up reproductive tract


Uterus1
Uterus

  • Composed of 3 tissue layers

  • Perimetrium

    • Outer most layer

    • Serous layer continuous w/ parietal peritoneum

  • Myometrium- middle layer

    • 90% of uterine mass

    • Longitudinal, circular & oblique smooth muscle layers

    • Produces force- pushes fetus into vaginal canal

  • Endometrium

    • Highly variable in thickness

    • Increases vascularization & glandular tissue

    • Development stimulated by high estrogen & progesterone




Endometrium1
Endometrium

  • Lining supports fetus during development

  • Maternal tissue fuses w/ fetal tissue to form placenta

  • Placenta allows exchange between fetal and maternal circulatory systems


Menstruation
Menstruation

  • Drop in LH & FSH result in drop of Progesterone and estrogen result in loss of endometrial lining

  • Pregnancy maintains high progesterone and estrogen levels and delays menstruation

    • Corpus luteum does not degenerate

    • Stimulated by Human Chorionic Gonadotropin produced by uterus


Caeserian section
Caeserian Section

  • 1 in 5 births


Clinical application
Clinical Application

  • Endometriosis

  • Endometrium grows in locations outside the uterus

  • 20% of women

  • Treatment

    • Medications- progesterone “pill”

    • surgery

  • Complications

    • Tissue can swell & bleed in response to hormones each month

    • Causes inflammation, adhesion, cysts, & scar tissue

    • Can damage affected organs



Fibroids
Fibroids

  • Fibroids

  • Aka Fibromyomas, Leiomyomas

  • Noncancerous tumors

  • 20-25% women develop typ after age of 30


Vagina
Vagina

  • Elastic muscular tube extending from the cervix to the exterior

  • Hymen

    • Epithelial fold at entrance into vagina

  • Protective mucus

    • Alkali mucus neutralizes Acidic pH

    • Transudate

  • Rugae

  • Function

    • Passage for menstrual substances

    • Copulatory structure & sperm receptacle

    • Birth canal



Hymen
Hymen

  • Found at interoitus

  • Highly variable

  • Perforate

  • Childbirth destroys all but remnants

  • Cultural stigma


Pubococcygeal muscles
Pubococcygeal Muscles

  • Kegel Muscles

  • Important during childbirth

  • Contract during arousal


Clinical application1
Clinical Application

  • Vagina supports a large number of “good” bacteria and fungi

  • Lactobacilli

    • Sugar to lactic acid (pH 4.0-5.0)

    • Acidity prevents “bad” bacteria

  • Candids albicans

    • Regulated populations become overgrown

    • Results in Candidiasis/ vaginal thrush/ yeast infection


Mesentaries
Mesentaries

  • Broad ligament

  • Suspensory ligament

  • Ovarian ligament

  • Round ligament


Broad ligament
Broad Ligament

  • Extension of parietal peritoneum

  • Covers

    • Ovaries

    • Fallopian tubes

    • Uterus

  • Specializations

    • Mesovarium

      • Portion of broad ligament attached to ovary

    • Mesosalpinx

      • Portion of broad ligament attached to oviduct


Suspensory ligament
Suspensory Ligament

  • Ligament between abdominal wall & ovary

  • Support ovarian blood vessels (ovarian artery & vein)


Ovarian ligament
Ovarian Ligament

  • Ligament between ovary & uterus


Round ligament
Round Ligament

  • Ligament between uterus & abdominal wall

  • Secured w/in inguinal canal CT


Prolapsed uterus
Prolapsed Uterus

  • Prolapsed uterus

  • Mesentary function compromised

  • Caused by aging and childbirth

  • Correlated with smoking and obesity

  • Do those Kegel exercises!!


External genitalia
External Genitalia

  • Referred to as pudendum “shameful”

  • Mons pubis

    • Thick adipose pad covering & cushioning pubic symphysis

  • Labia majora

    • Outer folds of skin

    • Covered w/ pubic hair

    • Contain sebaceous & sudiferous glands

  • Labia minora

    • Inner folds of skin

    • Devoid of pubic hair & most sudiferous glands

  • Clitoris

    • Cylindrical mass of erectile tissue

    • Anterior union of labia minora

    • Prepuce covers

  • Vestibule

    • Common space between labia minora

    • Greater vestibular gland

      • Secretes majority of lubricating mucus

      • Homologous to bulbourethral gland




Clitoris
Clitoris

  • Homologous to male penis

  • Comprised of

    • Corpora cavernosa

    • Corpus spongiosum

    • Glans

    • Prepuce

      • Subject to circumcision


Accessory glands
Accessory Glands

  • Mammary glands

  • Secondary sexual characteristic

  • Produce nutrients and passive immunity for offspring

  • Colostrum

    • Lower in fat

      • Baby can lose up to 10% wt

    • Macrophages

    • Contains proteins such as immunoglobulins

      • Mom’s antibodies

  • Mature milk

    • Over first 2 weeks

    • Increased volume (1L/day)

    • Higher fat content 3-6% (lactose)

    • Stimulates Lactobacilli in intestine

    • Brks down to glucose & galactose

      • Galactose needed for myelin production



Paraurethral gland1
Paraurethral Gland

  • AKA Skene’s gland

  • Homologous to prostate tissue

  • Found in similar location



Greater vestibular gland
Greater Vestibular Gland

  • AKA Bartholin’s

  • Homologous to male Bulbourethral gland

  • Produces small amounts of lubricating fluid



Male female comparison

Penis

Corpora cavernosa

Corpora spongiosum

Prox shaft of penis

Penile urethra

Bulbourethral glands

Scrotum

Clitoris

Erectile tissue

Vestibular bulbs

Labia minora

Vestibule

Grtr vestibular gland

Labia Majora

Male-female Comparison


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