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Human. Reproduction. Sexual Reproduction in Human. testis. ovary. meiosis. meiosis. sperms. eggs (ova). fertilization. zygote. embryo. foetus. baby. Male Reproductive System. vas deferens (sperm duct). epididymis. Click here. testis. Testes.

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Sexual reproduction in human l.jpgSlide 2

Sexual Reproduction in Human






eggs (ova)






Male reproductive system l.jpgSlide 3

Male Reproductive System

vas deferens (sperm duct)


Click here


Testes l.jpgSlide 4


  • For production of male gametes (sperms)

  • For production of male sex hormones

Click here

Epididymis l.jpgSlide 5


  • For temporarily storage of sperms

  • During copulation, muscles of epididymis contract to release sperms

Click here

Testis and epididymis l.jpgSlide 6

Testis and epididymis


vas deferens (sperm duct)

sperm tubules

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Male Reproductive System

seminal vesicle

secrete seminal fluid

prostate gland

Cowper’s gland

Functions of seminal fluid l.jpgSlide 8

Functions of Seminal Fluid

  • To provide a medium for the sperms to swim

  • To activate and nourish the sperms

  • To neutralize the acidity in the female reproductive tract






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Male Reproductive System



Penis l.jpgSlide 10


  • Erected during copulation for insertion into vagina

    • Dilation of arterioles causes the erectile tissue of penis become turgid

    • Muscles of epididymis contract

    • Semen is squeezed from the penis to the top of vagina

      • Ejaculation

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Female Reproductive System






Video of


Click here

Functions of ovary l.jpgSlide 12

Functions of Ovary

  • For production of female gametes (ova/eggs)

  • For production of female sex hormones

Click here

Oviduct l.jpgSlide 13


  • Carries the ovum forward by

    • the beating action of the cilia on its inner surface

    • the contraction of muscles of oviduct

Click here

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  • The release of an ovum from an ovary

Video of


Video of


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Menstrual Cycle

  • Once in about 28 days

  • The uterine lining becomes thickened 14 days after ovulation to prepare for the fertilized ovum to implant in it

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Video on change in

uterine lining

Menstrual Cycle

  • Day 6 - 14

    • Lining becomes thicker with increased blood supply

    • Day 14 : ovulation

  • Day 14 - 28

    • Lining remains thick to ready for implantation of fertilized ovum

  • Day 28

    • No implantation of fertilization ovum

    • Uterine lining breaks down; menstruation starts

  • Day 1 - 5

    • Menstruation starts

    • Uterine lining decreases in thickness to a minimum

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Events Happened after Fertilization

  • Ovum is fertilized at the oviduct

  • Fertilized ovum is carried to the uterus by

    • the beating cilia on the inner wall of oviduct

    • the contraction of muscles of oviduct

  • After reaching the uterus, the fertilized ovum fixed firmly onto the thick uterine wall


Development of human foetus l.jpgSlide 18

Development of Human Foetus




umbilical cord


amniotic fluid

Video on foetus


Click here

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Functions of the Uterus

  • During embryo development

    • Protect the embryo

    • Provide a constant environment for the embryo to develop

    • Allow placenta to attach on

  • During birth of baby

    • Push the baby out by muscular contraction

Click here

Functions of the amniotic fluid l.jpgSlide 20

Functions of the Amniotic Fluid

  • To keep the foetus moist to prevent dessication

  • As a water cushion to

    • support the foetus

    • allow it to move freely

    • absorb shock

    • protect the foetus from mechanical injuries

  • To reduce temperature fluctuation

  • To lubricate the vagina during birth

Click here

The placenta l.jpgSlide 21

The Placenta

oxygenated blood from mother’s artery

deoxygenated blood to mother’s vein


umbilical vein

umbilical artery

Functions of the placenta l.jpgSlide 22

Functions of the Placenta

  • As a place of exchange of materials between mother and the foetus

  • For secreting hormones

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Adaptations of the Placenta

  • Finger-like villi

    • to increase the surface area for efficient diffusion

  • Maternal blood and foetal blood flows in opposite direction

    • to speed up diffusion of materials between them

  • Maternal blood capillaries and foetal blood capillaries are separated by thin membrane

    • to shorten the distance of diffusion of materials

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Adaptations of the Placenta

  • Maternal blood is separated from foetal blood by capillary wall

    • to prevent high pressure of maternal blood to break the delicate foetal blood vessels

    • to prevent harmful substances to enter the foetus

    • to prevent clotting of maternal and foetal blood if their blood groups are incompatible

Click here

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The Birth Process

  • Onset of labour

    • Uterine muscles begin to make rhythmic contractions

    • Contractions gradually become stronger and closer

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The Birth Process

  • Uterine contractions causes amnion to break and amniotic fluid to escape out of the vagina

  • Muscular contractions push the foetus head first through the vagina, and the umbilical cord is cut and tied

  • Further contractions push the placenta out of the body

    • “After birth”

  • Dilation of cervix allow the head of the foetus to pass through

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Could you survive

after birth without

the care of your


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Parental Care

  • To increase the chance of survival of the young

  • Mother feeds milk to the baby

    • Milk provides the babies with a balanced diet

    • It also contains antibodies which defend the babies against infection

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Birth Control

  • Human population increases exponentially

    • leads to storage of resources

    • problem of pollution becomes more serious

    • overcrowding

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What can we do?

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Rhythm Method

  • Prevent copulation during 7 days before and after ovulation (fertile period)

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  • Male and female condom

  • As a barrier to prevent sperms from entering the vagina

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  • Fitted over the cervix

  • To be used together with spermicides

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Contraceptive Pills

  • Contains hormones which inhibit ovulation

  • Must be taken regularly

  • May have side effect

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Surgical Methods

Tubal ligation

Cutting and tying of oviducts


Cutting and tying of sperm ducts

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