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Reproduction






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Human. Reproduction. Sexual Reproduction in Human. testis. ovary. meiosis. meiosis. sperms. eggs (ova). fertilization. zygote. embryo. foetus. baby. Male Reproductive System. vas deferens (sperm duct). epididymis. Click here. testis. Testes.
Reproduction

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Slide 1

Human

Reproduction

Slide 2

Sexual Reproduction in Human

testis

ovary

meiosis

meiosis

sperms

eggs (ova)

fertilization

zygote

embryo

foetus

baby

Slide 3

Male Reproductive System

vas deferens (sperm duct)

epididymis

Click here

testis

Slide 4

Testes

  • For production of male gametes (sperms)

  • For production of male sex hormones

Click here

Slide 5

Epididymis

  • For temporarily storage of sperms

  • During copulation, muscles of epididymis contract to release sperms

Click here

Slide 6

Testis and epididymis

epididymis

vas deferens (sperm duct)

sperm tubules

Slide 7

Male Reproductive System

seminal vesicle

secrete seminal fluid

prostate gland

Cowper’s gland

Slide 8

Functions of Seminal Fluid

  • To provide a medium for the sperms to swim

  • To activate and nourish the sperms

  • To neutralize the acidity in the female reproductive tract

Seminal

Fluid

Semen

Sperms

+

Slide 9

Male Reproductive System

urethra

penis

Slide 10

Penis

  • Erected during copulation for insertion into vagina

    • Dilation of arterioles causes the erectile tissue of penis become turgid

    • Muscles of epididymis contract

    • Semen is squeezed from the penis to the top of vagina

      • Ejaculation

Slide 11

Female Reproductive System

oviduct

ovary

uterus

cervix

vagina

Video of

fertilization

Click here

Slide 12

Functions of Ovary

  • For production of female gametes (ova/eggs)

  • For production of female sex hormones

Click here

Slide 13

Oviduct

  • Carries the ovum forward by

    • the beating action of the cilia on its inner surface

    • the contraction of muscles of oviduct

Click here

Slide 14

Ovulation

  • The release of an ovum from an ovary

Video of

ovulation

Video of

ovulation

Slide 15

Menstrual Cycle

  • Once in about 28 days

  • The uterine lining becomes thickened 14 days after ovulation to prepare for the fertilized ovum to implant in it

Slide 16

Video on change in

uterine lining

Menstrual Cycle

  • Day 6 - 14

    • Lining becomes thicker with increased blood supply

    • Day 14 : ovulation

  • Day 14 - 28

    • Lining remains thick to ready for implantation of fertilized ovum

  • Day 28

    • No implantation of fertilization ovum

    • Uterine lining breaks down; menstruation starts

  • Day 1 - 5

    • Menstruation starts

    • Uterine lining decreases in thickness to a minimum

Slide 17

Events Happened after Fertilization

  • Ovum is fertilized at the oviduct

  • Fertilized ovum is carried to the uterus by

    • the beating cilia on the inner wall of oviduct

    • the contraction of muscles of oviduct

  • After reaching the uterus, the fertilized ovum fixed firmly onto the thick uterine wall

    Implantation

Slide 18

Development of Human Foetus

uterus

foetus

placenta

umbilical cord

amnion

amniotic fluid

Video on foetus

development

Click here

Slide 19

Functions of the Uterus

  • During embryo development

    • Protect the embryo

    • Provide a constant environment for the embryo to develop

    • Allow placenta to attach on

  • During birth of baby

    • Push the baby out by muscular contraction

Click here

Slide 20

Functions of the Amniotic Fluid

  • To keep the foetus moist to prevent dessication

  • As a water cushion to

    • support the foetus

    • allow it to move freely

    • absorb shock

    • protect the foetus from mechanical injuries

  • To reduce temperature fluctuation

  • To lubricate the vagina during birth

Click here

Slide 21

The Placenta

oxygenated blood from mother’s artery

deoxygenated blood to mother’s vein

villus

umbilical vein

umbilical artery

Slide 22

Functions of the Placenta

  • As a place of exchange of materials between mother and the foetus

  • For secreting hormones

Slide 23

Adaptations of the Placenta

  • Finger-like villi

    • to increase the surface area for efficient diffusion

  • Maternal blood and foetal blood flows in opposite direction

    • to speed up diffusion of materials between them

  • Maternal blood capillaries and foetal blood capillaries are separated by thin membrane

    • to shorten the distance of diffusion of materials

Slide 24

Adaptations of the Placenta

  • Maternal blood is separated from foetal blood by capillary wall

    • to prevent high pressure of maternal blood to break the delicate foetal blood vessels

    • to prevent harmful substances to enter the foetus

    • to prevent clotting of maternal and foetal blood if their blood groups are incompatible

Click here

Slide 25

The Birth Process

  • Onset of labour

    • Uterine muscles begin to make rhythmic contractions

    • Contractions gradually become stronger and closer

Slide 26

The Birth Process

  • Uterine contractions causes amnion to break and amniotic fluid to escape out of the vagina

  • Muscular contractions push the foetus head first through the vagina, and the umbilical cord is cut and tied

  • Further contractions push the placenta out of the body

    • “After birth”

  • Dilation of cervix allow the head of the foetus to pass through

Slide 27

Could you survive

after birth without

the care of your

parents?

Slide 28

Parental Care

  • To increase the chance of survival of the young

  • Mother feeds milk to the baby

    • Milk provides the babies with a balanced diet

    • It also contains antibodies which defend the babies against infection

Slide 29

Birth Control

  • Human population increases exponentially

    • leads to storage of resources

    • problem of pollution becomes more serious

    • overcrowding

Slide 30

Using

contraception

methods

What can we do?

Slide 31

Rhythm Method

  • Prevent copulation during 7 days before and after ovulation (fertile period)

Slide 32

Condom

  • Male and female condom

  • As a barrier to prevent sperms from entering the vagina

Slide 33

Diaphragm

  • Fitted over the cervix

  • To be used together with spermicides

Slide 34

Contraceptive Pills

  • Contains hormones which inhibit ovulation

  • Must be taken regularly

  • May have side effect

Slide 35

Surgical Methods

Tubal ligation

Cutting and tying of oviducts

Vasectomy

Cutting and tying of sperm ducts

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