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The Microworld. Apply Your Knowledge: Test Your Food Safety Knowledge. True or False: Bacillus cereus is commonly associated with cereal crops, such as rice

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apply your knowledge test your food safety knowledge
Apply Your Knowledge: Test Your Food Safety Knowledge
  • True or False:Bacillus cereus is commonly associated with cereal crops, such as rice

2.True or False: A foodborne intoxication results when a person eats food containing pathogens, which then grow in the intestines and cause illness

3.True or False: Cooking food to the required minimum internal temperature can help avoid listeriosis

4.True or False: A person with shigellosis may experience bloody diarrhea

5.True or False:Highly acidic food typically does not support the growth of foodborne microorganisms

2-2

microbial contaminants
Microbial Contaminants
  • Microorganism
    • Small, living organism
  • Pathogen
    • Illness-causing microorganism
  • Toxin
    • Poison
microbial contaminants1
Microbial Contaminants
  • Microorganisms That Can Contaminate Food and Cause Foodborne Illness

Bacteria

Viruses

Parasites

Fungi

what microorganisms need to grow fat tom
What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM

A

T

F

Temperature

Food

Acidity

T

M

O

Moisture

Time

Oxygen

what microorganisms need to grow fat tom1
What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM
  • Food
    • Foodborne microorganisms require nutrients to grow. Specifically carbohydrates and proteins
    • These are found in potentially hazardous food including:
      • Meat
      • Poultry
      • Dairy products
      • Eggs

F

Food

what microorganisms need to grow fat tom2
What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM
  • Acidity
    • Foodborne microorganisms grow best in food that has a neutral or slightly acidic pH (7.5 to 4.6)
    • Most food falls into this range

A

Acidity

pH Scale

Acidic

7.5–4.6

ideal for

bacterial

growth

Neutral

Alkaline

what microorganisms need to grow fat tom3
What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM
  • Temperature
    • Foodborne microorganisms grow well at temperatures between 41˚F and 135˚F (5˚C and 57˚C)

T

Temperature

135°F

(57°C)

The Temperature Danger Zone

41°F

(5°C)

what microorganisms need to grow fat tom4
What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM
  • Time
    • Foodborne microorganisms need sufficient time to grow
    • 4 hours or more in TDZ=growth high enough to cause illness

T

Time

what microorganisms need to grow fat tom5
What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM
  • Oxygen
    • Some foodborne microorganisms require oxygen to grow, while others grow when oxygen is absent

O

Oxygen

what microorganisms need to grow fat tom6
What Microorganisms Need to Grow: FAT TOM
  • Moisture
    • Most foodborne microorganisms require moisture to grow
    • The amount of moisture available in food for this growth is called water activity (aw)
    • Potentially hazardous food typically has an aw of .85 or higher

M

Moisture

controlling the growth of microorganisms
Controlling the Growth of Microorganisms
  • The two conditions you can control:
    • Temperature
      • Refrigerate or freeze food properly
      • Cook food properly
    • Time
      • Minimize time food spends in the temperature danger zone (TDZ)
apply your knowledge what i need to grow
Apply Your Knowledge: What I Need to Grow!
  • Which conditions typically support the growth of microorganisms?

Food that is high in fat

Food that contains protein

pH of 9.0

Temperature of 155F (68C) or higher

Dry environment

1

2

3

4

5

2-13

classifying foodborne illness
Classifying Foodborne Illness
  • Foodborne Infections
    • Result when a person eats food containing pathogens, which then grow in the intestines and cause illness
  • Foodborne Intoxications
    • Result when a person eats food containing toxins that cause illness
  • Foodborne Toxin-Mediated Infections
    • Result when a person eats food containing pathogens, which then produce illness-causing toxins in the intestines
bacteria that cause foodborne illness
Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness
  • Basic Characteristics
    • Living, single-celled organism
    • Can be carried by food, water, soil, animals, humans, or insects
    • Can reproduce very rapidly under favorable conditions
bacteria that cause foodborne illness1
Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness
  • Basic Characteristics: continued
    • Some survive freezing
    • Some change into a different form called sporesto protect themselves
    • Some spoil food; others cause illness
    • Some produce toxins that cause illness
spores
Spores
  • Certain bacteria can change into a different form, called spores, to protect themselves
  • Spores
    • Form when nutrients are not available
    • Are commonly found in soil and contaminate food grown there
    • Can contaminate meat, poultry, fish, and other food exposed to soil or dust
spores1
Spores
  • Spores
    • Can resist heat, allowing them to survive cooking temperatures
    • Can revert back to a form capable of growth when:
      • Food is not stored at the proper temperature
      • Food is not held or cooled properly
major foodborne illnesses caused by bacteria
Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Bacteria
  • Infections
    • Campylobacteriosis
    • Salmonellosis
    • Shigellosis
    • Listeriosis
    • Vibrio parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis
    • Vibrio vulnificus Primary Septicemia/Gastroenteritis
infection campylobacteriosis
Infection: Campylobacteriosis

Illness:CampylobacteriosisBacteria: Campylobacterjejuni

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Diarrhea (may be bloody)
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Poultry
  • Water contaminated with the bacteria

Diarrhea

Abdominal Cramps

Fever

Headache

preventing campylobacteriosis
Preventing Campylobacteriosis
  • To reduce the bacteria in food:
    • Cook food, particularly poultry, to required minimum internal temperatures
  • To prevent the transfer of the bacteria:
    • Prevent cross-contamination between raw poultry and ready-to-eat food.
infection salmonellosis
Infection: Salmonellosis

Illness:SalmonellosisBacteria: Salmonella spp.

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Poultry and eggs
  • Dairy products
  • Beef
preventing salmonellosis
Preventing Salmonellosis
  • To reduce the bacteria in food:
    • Cook raw beef, poultry, and eggs to required minimum internal temperatures.
  • To prevent the transfer of the bacteria:
    • Minimize cross-contamination between raw meat and poultry and ready-to-eat food.
    • Exclude foodhandlers diagnosed with salmonellosis.
infection shigellosis
Infection: Shigellosis

Illness:ShigellosisBacteria: Shigella spp.

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Food easily contaminated by hands
  • Food in contact with contaminated water (i.e., produce)
  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain and cramps
  • Fever (occasionally)
preventing shigellosis
Preventing Shigellosis
  • To prevent the transfer of the bacteria:
    • Exclude foodhandlers if they:
      • Have diarrhea
      • Have been diagnosed with shigellosis
    • Wash hands when necessary
    • Control flies inside and outside the establishment
infection listeriosis
Infection: Listeriosis

Illness:ListeriosisBacteria: Listeria monocytogenes

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Raw meat
  • Unpasteurized milk and milk products
  • Ready-to-eat food including:
    • Deli meats
    • Hot dogs
    • Soft cheese
  • Pregnant women
    • Spontaneous abortion of the fetus
  • Newborns
    • Sepsis
    • Pneumonia
    • Meningitis
preventing listeriosis
Preventing Listeriosis
  • It is critical to:
    • Discard product that has passed its use-by or expiration date
    • Avoid using unpasteurized dairy products
  • To reduce the bacteria in food:
    • Cook raw meat to required minimum internal temperatures
  • To prevent the transfer of the bacteria:
    • Prevent cross-contamination between raw or undercooked and ready-to-eat food
infection vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis
Infection: Vibrio parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis

Illness:Vibrio parahaemolyticus GastroenteritisBacteria: Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Raw or partially cooked oysters
  • Diarrhea and abdominal cramps
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Low grade fever and chills
preventing vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis
Preventing Vibrio parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis
  • Most Important Prevention Measures
    • Purchase oysters from approved, reputable suppliers
    • Cook oysters to the required minimum internal temperature
infection vibrio vulnificus primary septicemia
Infection: Vibrio vulnificus Primary Septicemia

Illness:Vibrio vulnificus Primary SepticemiaBacteria: Vibro vulnificus

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Raw or partially cooked oysters

(People with liver disease and diabetes)

  • Fever and chills
  • Nausea
  • Skin lesions
  • Diarrhea and vomiting possible
infection vibrio vulnificus gastroenteritis
Infection: Vibrio vulnificus Gastroenteritis

Illness:Vibrio vulnificus GastroenteritisBacteria: Vibrio vulnificus

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Raw or partially cooked oysters

(Otherwise healthy people)

  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal cramps
preventing vibrio vulnificus septicemia gastroenteritis
Preventing Vibrio vulnificus Septicemia/Gastroenteritis
  • Most Important Prevention Measures
    • Purchase oysters from approved, reputable suppliers.
    • Cook oysters to the required minimum internal temperature.
    • Inform people at risk to consult a physician before regularly consuming raw or partially cooked oysters
major foodborne illnesses caused by bacteria1
Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Bacteria
  • Intoxications
    • Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis
    • Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis
    • Botulism
intoxication bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
Intoxication: Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis

Illness:Bacillus cereus GastroenteritisBacteria: Bacillus cereus

(Diarrheal Toxin)

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Watery diarrhea
  • Abdominal cramps and pain
  • Vomiting is absent
  • Cooked corn
  • Cooked potatoes
  • Cooked vegetables
  • Meat products
intoxication bacillus cereus gastroenteritis1
Intoxication: Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis

Illness:Bacillus cereus GastroenteritisBacteria: Bacillus cereus

(Emetic Toxin)

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Cooked rice dishes including:
    • Fried rice
    • Rice pudding
preventing bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
Preventing Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis
  • To reduce the bacteria in food:
    • Cook food to required minimum internal temperatures
  • To prevent the growth of the bacteria:
    • Hold food at the proper temperature
    • Cool food properly
intoxication staphylococcal gastroenteritis
Intoxication: StaphylococcalGastroenteritis

Illness:Staphylococcal GastroenteritisBacteria: Staphylococcus aureus

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting and retching
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Salads containing potentially hazardous food:
    • Egg, tuna, chicken, macaroni
  • Deli meats
preventing staphylococcal gastroenteritis
Preventing Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis
  • To prevent the transfer of the bacteria to food:
    • Wash hands after touching the body
    • Cover cuts on hands and arms
    • Restrict foodhandlers with infected cuts on hands and arms
  • To prevent the growth of the bacteria in food:
    • Minimize the time food spends in the TDZ
      • Cook, hold, and cool food properly
intoxication botulism
Intoxication: Botulism

Illness:BotulismBacteria: Clostridium botulinum

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Improperly canned food
  • ROP food
  • Temperature abused vegetables like:
    • Baked potatoes
    • Untreated garlic-and-oil mixtures

Initially:

  • Nausea and Vomiting

Later:

  • Weakness
  • Double vision
  • Difficulty speaking and swallowing
preventing botulism
Preventing Botulism
  • Most Important Prevention Measures:
    • Hold, cool, and reheat food properly
    • Inspect canned food for damage
major foodborne illnesses caused by bacteria2
Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Bacteria
  • Toxin-Mediated Infections:
    • Clostridium perfringens Gastroenteritis
    • Hemorrhagic Colitis
toxin mediated infection clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis
Toxin-Mediated Infection: Clostridium perfringens Gastroenteritis

Illness:Clostridium perfringens GastroenteritisBacteria: Clostridium perfringens

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Meat and poultry dishes:
    • Stews
    • Gravies
  • Diarrhea
  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Fever and vomiting are absent
preventing clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis
Preventing Clostridium perfringens Gastroenteritis
  • To prevent growth of the bacteria (especially in meat dishes):
    • Cool and reheat food properly
    • Hold food at the proper temperature
toxin mediated infection hemorrhagic colitis
Toxin-Mediated Infection:Hemorrhagic Colitis

Illness:Hemorrhagic ColitisBacteria: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Ground beef (raw and undercooked)
  • Contaminated produce
  • Diarrhea (eventually becomes bloody)
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Severe cases can result in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)
preventing hemorrhagic colitis
Preventing Hemorrhagic Colitis
  • To reduce the bacteria in food:
    • Cook food, particularly ground beef, to required minimum internal temperatures
  • To prevent the transfer of the bacteria to food:
    • Prevent cross-contamination between raw meat and ready-to-eat food
    • Exclude employees from the establishment if:
      • They have diarrhea
      • They have been diagnosed with hemorrhagic colitis
basic characteristics of viruses
Basic Characteristics of Viruses
  • Viruses
    • Some may survive freezing
    • Can be transmitted from:
      • Person to person
      • People to food
      • People to food-contact surfaces
    • Usually contaminate food through a foodhandler’s improper hygiene
    • Can contaminate both food and water supplies
major foodborne illnesses caused by viruses
Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Viruses
  • Viral Foodborne Illnesses
    • Hepatitis A
    • Norovirus Gastroenteritis
infection hepatitis a
Infection: Hepatitis A

Illness:Hepatitis AVirus: Hepatitis A

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Ready-to-eat food including:
    • Deli meats
    • Produce
    • Salads
  • Raw and partially cooked shellfish

Initially:

  • Fever (mild)
  • General weakness
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal pain

Later:

  • Jaundice
preventing hepatitis a
Preventing Hepatitis A
  • To prevent the transfer of the virus to food:
    • Wash hands properly
    • Exclude employees who have jaundice or hepatitis A
    • Minimize bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food
  • Other prevention measures:
    • Purchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliers
    • Inform high-risk populations to consult a physician before regularly consuming raw or partially cooked shellfish
infection norovirus gastroenteritis
Infection: Norovirus Gastroenteritis

Illness:Norovirus GastroenteritisVirus: Norovirus

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Ready-to-eat food
  • Shellfish contaminated by sewage
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal cramps
preventing norovirus gastroenteritis
Preventing Norovirus Gastroenteritis
  • To prevent the transfer of the virus to food:
    • Exclude foodhandlers with diarrhea and vomiting
    • Exclude employees who have been diagnosed with Norovirus Gastroenteritis
    • Wash hands properly
  • Other prevention measures:
    • Purchase shellfish from approved, reputable suppliers
basic characteristics of parasites
Basic Characteristics of Parasites
  • Parasites
    • Are living organisms that need a host to survive
    • Are small, often microscopic
    • Infect many animals and can be transmitted to humans
    • Are a hazard to food and water
major foodborne illnesses caused by parasites
Major Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Parasites
  • Parasitic Foodborne Illnesses
    • Anisakiasis
    • Cyclosporiasis
    • Cryptosporidiosis
    • Giardiasis
infection anisakiasis
Infection: Anisakiasis

Illness:AnisakiasisParasite: Anisakis simplex

Most Common Symptoms

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

Non-invasive

  • Tingling in throat
  • Coughing up worms

Invasive

  • Stomach pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea

Raw and undercooked:

  • Herring
  • Cod
  • Halibut
  • Mackerel
  • Pacific salmon
preventing anisakiasis
Preventing Anisakiasis
  • Most Important Prevention Measures
    • Cook fish to required minimum internal temperatures
    • Purchase fish from approved, reputable suppliers
  • If fish will be served raw or undercooked:
    • Purchase sushi-grade fish
    • Ensure sushi-grade fish has been frozen properly by the supplier
infection cyclosporiasis
Infection: Cyclosporiasis

Illness:CyclosporiasisParasite: Cyclospora cayetanensis

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Nausea (mild to severe)
  • Abdominal cramping
  • Mild fever
  • Diarrhea alternating with constipation
  • Produce irrigated or washed with water containing the parasite
preventing cyclosporiasis
Preventing Cyclosporiasis
  • It is critical to:
    • Purchase produce from approved, reputable suppliers
  • To prevent the transfer of the parasite to food:
    • Exclude foodhandlers with diarrhea
    • Wash hands properly to minimize the risk of cross-contamination
infection cryptosporidiosis
Infection: Cryptosporidiosis

Illness:CryptosporidiosisParasite: Cryptosporidiumparvum

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

  • Untreated or improperly treated water
  • Contaminated produce
  • Watery diarrhea
  • Stomach cramps
  • Nausea
  • Weight loss
preventing cryptosporidiosis
Preventing Cryptosporidiosis
  • It is critical to:
    • Purchase produce from approved, reputable suppliers
    • Use properly treated water
  • To prevent the transfer of the parasite to food:
    • Exclude foodhandlers with diarrhea
    • Wash hands properly to minimize the risk of cross-contamination
infection giardiasis
Infection: Giardiasis

Illness:GiardiasisParasite: Giardiaduodenalis

Commonly Associated Food

Most Common Symptoms

Initially:

  • Fever

Later:

  • Loose stools
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Nausea
  • Improperly treated water
preventing giardiasis
Preventing Giardiasis
  • Most Important Prevention Measure
    • Use properly treated water
  • To prevent the transfer of the parasite to food:
    • Exclude foodhandlers with diarrhea
    • Wash hands properly to minimize the risk of cross-contamination
fungi
Fungi
  • Fungi
    • Commonly cause food spoilage and sometimes illness

Fungi

Molds Yeasts

basic characteristics of mold
Basic Characteristics of Mold
  • Mold
    • Spoils food and sometimes causes illness
    • Grows well in acidic food with low water activity
    • Is not destroyed by freezing
    • Can produce toxins such as aflatoxins
basic characteristics of yeast
Basic Characteristics of Yeast
  • Yeast
    • Can spoil food rapidly
    • May produce a smell or taste of alcohol as it spoils food
    • May appear as a pink discoloration or slime and may bubble