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The Ocean. A life under the sea. Just the facts…. The ocean covers about 70% of the earths surface and contains 97% of the earth’s water supply! There are four oceans all over the world, and their names are Pacific , Atlantic , Indian , and Arctic Average depths are… Pacific- 15,215 feet

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the ocean

The Ocean

A life under the sea

just the facts
Just the facts…
  • The ocean covers about 70% of the earths surface and contains 97% of the earth’s water supply!
  • There are four oceans all over the world, and their names are Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic
      • Average depths are…
          • Pacific- 15,215 feet
          • Atlantic- 12,881 feet
          • Indian- 13,002 feet
          • Arctic- 3,953 feet

deep waters ahead!


Dark blue indicates location of Pacific Ocean

  • Located between the Southern ocean, Asia, Australia, and Western Hemisphere
  • The Pacific ocean is about 15 times the size of the United States and covers about 28% of the entire world!
  • It is surrounded by the “Ring of Fire”, and is subject to tropical cyclones
  • Major contributor to the world because of extensive fishing grounds, offshore oil and gas fields, and minerals, sand, and gravel for the construction industry
  • Second largest ocean
  • Located between Africa, Europe and
  • the Western
  • hemisphere
  • Subject to tropical cyclones and hurricanes
  • The Atlantic is a natural resource for oil and gas fields, fish, sand and gravel, and precious stones

Dark blue indicates location of Atlantic Ocean

  • Located between Africa, Asia, and Australia
  • Is about 5.5 times the U.S. in size
  • Creates Monsoons and tropical cyclones

Dark blue indicates location of Indian Ocean

  • Smallest of the world’s oceans
  • Located between Europe, Asia, and North America
  • Winter has cold, clear skies with constant darkness, and summer brings continuous daylight and damp, foggy weather

Dark blue indicates location of Arctic Ocean


Now that we know about all four of the

oceans, let’s examine…

why is the ocean blue
Why is the ocean blue?
  • The sun is made up of all of the colors of the rainbow, (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet) so the sunlight penetrates the water and is scattered by ripples and particles in the water. Deep water is particularly blue because much of the blue sunlight is scattered by the oxygen in the water.
  • Did you know that…
  • the Red Sea often looks red because of the red algae that lives in it
  • the Black Sea looks almost black because of the high concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the water
what causes waves
What causeswaves?
  • Waves are often caused by winds on the surface of the ocean. Some of that wind transfers energy to the water through friction between air molecules and water molecules. Stronger winds make stronger waves!
what causes tides
What causestides?
  • Tides are periodic rises and falls in a large body of water. They are caused by the gravitational attraction of the moon, that causes the ocean to bulge in the direction of the moon twice a day because the earth is rotating.
why are the oceans salty
Why are the oceans salty?

The saltiest water is in the Red Sea and the least salty water is in the polar region the melting ice caps and a lot of rain contribute to diluting the water.

  • As water flows through rivers before entering the ocean, it picks up mineral salts from rock and soil of the river beds. And since water can evaporate and salt cannot, the water gets saltier and saltier as time passes. Right now oceans are 3.5% salt on average.

The Dead Sea is so salty you can float in it!

what about the coral reefs
What about the coral reefs?
  • Coral reefs form in shallow, warm water that is usually near land and mostly in the tropics. Coral prefer temperatures between 70 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit. There are three main types of coral…
    • Fringing- form along the coastline and grow in shallow water
    • Barrier reefs- grow parallel to shorelines and are usually separated from land by a deep lagoon
    • Coral Atolls- rings of coral that grow on top of old, sunken volcanoes in the ocean
  • Sadly, many coral reefs are dying because of water pollution, dredging off the coast, careless specimens of researchers, and sedimentation
animals of the ocean
Animals of the ocean

There are literally millions of animal species in the ocean. To name a few, there are crustaceans, whales, seals, sharks, lobsters, crabs, plankton, jellyfish, and every type of fish you could ever imagine! Let’s learn more about these animals!




Sea Anemone

Blue Whale

Sea Horse



Lobsters are a type of crustaceans, they have a tough shell or exoskeleton and live on the ocean floor. They are mainly nocturnal, meaning they come out at night, and are predators of crabs, clams, worms, and snails. Lobsters can live to be 100 years old!!

Blue Whale

Blue whales are the biggest animals in the ocean and on earth! They breathe through two blow holes that can push water up 40-50 feet above the surface of the water. They live in small groups called pods and eat tiny crustaceans, plankton and small fish



The octopus is an eight armed animal that lives on the ocean floor with each arm having two rows of suction cups. It also has an eye on each side of its head so the octopus has very good eyesight. It moves by walking on its tentacles and lives in dens, spaces under rock, crevices in the sea floor. In order to escape from predators, octopus’ squirt black ink into the water which allows them to escape.

Sea Anemone

Sea anemone look like plants but are actually predatory animals. They live attached to firm objects in the seas, usually the sea floor, rock, or coral, but they can slide around very slowly. There are over 1000 species of anemones found in coastal waters worldwide, in shallow waters and in deep oceans. They come in many different shapes and sizes, and eat fish, muscles, and worms.


Average dolphins grow to be about 12 feet long, sometimes weighing more than 1,400 pounds. They eat mostly fish and squid with their many pairs of sharp pointed teeth. Sharks and orca prey upon dolphins, they also often get trapped in people’s fishing nets.


Sea Horse

Seahorses are a type of small fish that have armored plates all over their body (they don\'t have scales). There are about 50 different species of seahorses around the world. They live in seaweed beds in warm water and are very slow swimmers. Seahorses can change their color to camouflage (hide) themselves in order to hide from enemies. They swim by moving the fin on their back.


Blue Rockfish

Brown Rockfish


Just a few of the millions of fish that live in the ocean!

California Sheephead

China Rockfish


Gaint Seabass


Grunt Sculpin

Shortspine Thornyhead

Kelp Bass

Red Irish Lord


Endangered Species

Certain species of these animals that make their homes in the ocean, grow fewer and fewer each day when they are over hunted or oceans are polluted.

Click on the link!