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The Ocean. Init 2/17/2010 by Daniel R. Barnes. WARNING: This presentation contains graphical and audio elements taken without permission from the world wide web. Do not copy or distribute this presentation. Its very existence may be illegal. Geography. CONTINENTS AND OCEANS. ?. ?. Europe.

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slide1

The Ocean

Init 2/17/2010 by Daniel R. Barnes

WARNING: This presentation contains graphical and audio elements taken without permission from the world wide web. Do not copy or distribute this presentation. Its very existence may be illegal.

slide2

Geography

CONTINENTS AND OCEANS

?

?

Europe

Asia

North

America

Mediterranean

Sea

?

?

Atlantic

Ocean

?

Africa

?

PacificOcean

?

South

America

?

?

Australia

Indian

Ocean

?

?

Atlantic

Ocean

?

Antarctica

slide3

Geography

FAMOUS LOCATIONS

Los Angeles

New York City

West

sa-eed!

slide4

Geography

FAMOUS LOCATIONS

Greenland

Siberia

Norway &

Sweden

Alaska

Iceland

Italy

Japan

China

Los Angeles

Himalayas

New York City

Egypt

India

Hawaii

Philippines

Brazil

slide5

HISTORICAL ASIDE:

Countries that were at some point part of the

BRITISH EMPIRE

Sorry, Erlis. Turkey is grey on this map. It has never been a possession of the British.

It looks like the Brits owned the island of Cyprus at some point, though. That’s close to Turkey.

slide6

HISTORICAL ASIDE:

Countries that, in 1683, were part of the

OTTOMAN EMPIRE

Grand Vizier

Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha

It looks like you were just thinking of the wrong empire.

slide8

Seafloor Topography

Topography is . . .

. . . the study of the shape of the earth’s surface

The sea floor has just as much topographic diversity as dry land does . . .

slide9

Seafloor Topography

Dry Land Ocean Floor

Mountains

Valleys

Plains

Volcanoes

Faults

Plateaus

slide10

Seafloor Topography

The deepest parts of the ocean are colored . . .

. . . dark blue on this map.

These deep, wide, dark, flat regions of the seafloor are called . . .

abyssal plains

slide13

Mid-Atlantic

Ridge

Seafloor Topography

divergent

plate boundary

seafloor

spreading

Basaltic eruptions

make new oceanic crust

slide14

pillow

basalt

slide15

Seafloor Topography

Mid-Atlantic

Ridge

Oceanic ridge

Mid-ocean ridge

slide16

Seafloor Topography

Grand

Banks

What are all

the red zones?

continental

shelf

shallow

water

often

good for

fishing

slide17

Seafloor Topography

can easily become

a land bridge . . .

. . . when sea levels drop . . .

continental

shelf

shallow

water

. . . during a glaciation phase of an ice age

slide18

Seafloor Topography

can easily become

a land bridge . . .

. . . when sea levels drop . . .

. . . during a glaciation phase of an ice age

slide19

This map has a different color code than the last one.

This map has a different color code than the last one.

On this map, what color are the continental shelves?

On this map, what color is the mid-ocean ridge?

On this map, what is in dark blue?

On this map, what color are the highest mountains?

slide26

Islands have a tendency to become surrounded by coral reefs.

Coral is an animal, even though it sits in place like a plant.

However, coral polyps, which are basically jellyfish with their heads stuck to a rocky skeleton they secrete, do typically have tiny golden-brown algae living in them that photosynthesize.

Therefore, coral must grow in clear, shallow, sunlit waters.

slide27

If the volcanic eruptions stop, the island stops growing, but weathering and erosion don’t stop, so the island shrinks.

The island itself may shrink, but the ring of coral remains, since it’s alive, and can grow, if needed, to stay high enough to reach light.

The ability to fight the forces of weathering and erosion are, in fact, a sign of life.

Coral is a combination of rock and living tissue, so not only is it subject to normal weathering and erosion; it is also subject to being eaten . . .

slide28

The green humphead parrotfish eats algae that grows on coral, and also eats the coral itself.

Because it eats coral, it poops out calcium carbonate sediment.

slide29

If eruptions have stopped, waves will wear the island away until its surface lies beneath the waves, but the coral keeps growing

Once the island is worn down beneath the waves, coral can grow on top of it, turning the fringing reef from a doughnut shape into a solid disc shape (cookie?). It is now an “atoll”.

The oceanic crust from which the island projects often begins to sink once the magma supply dies out.

The coral keeps growing upward, creating more and more calcium carbonate skeleton, to stay high enough for light.

slide30

At some point, though, the crustal plate may sink so low that the coral can’t grow fast enough to stay in the light, and the reef dies.

At this point, the submerged ex-island is no longer an atoll, but a guyot.

Guyots are flat-topped seamounts that used to be islands.

slide31

enough of

topography.

slide33

Oceanic

Circulation

Ocean

Currents

slide34

Surface Currents

e=mc2

Deep Currents

slide35

gyres

North

Atlantic

Gyre

North Pacific

Gyre

South

Atlantic

Gyre

Indian

Ocean

Gyre

South Pacific

Gyre

slide36

Coriolis effect

North

Atlantic

Gyre

North Pacific

Gyre

South

Atlantic

Gyre

Indian

Ocean

Gyre

South Pacific

Gyre

slide41

Seafloor Topography

Europe

Asia

North

America

Atlantic

Ocean

Africa

PacificOcean

South

America

Australia

Indian

Ocean

Atlantic

Ocean

Antarctica

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